gramatiko



GRAMATIKO ATLANGA

(14.II.2017)

(Versio kol kamboy:ADY,PADI,Igi,max-i,pro qo,pyensi,anke,bau-,bay-,LI-TONO,bres! Bre-,drem)


Gramatiko di Atlango esta molte simpla:

Pronunso i Atlango:

VOWELS.

The vowels of the alphabet are pronounced as follows:

a as in English: far.  e as in fiancé, like a in fate.  i as in machineo as in tollforu as in ruderural.

The consonants bdfhklmnptvw, are pronounced as in English, and the remaining as follows:

zz like ts in pizza, tsetse, tsar

c like ch in chinmuch.

g like g in gobig.

j like in French and in English: z in azure,  s in visual.  OR: j like in English  jar

as in  German and Scotch ch, Spanish j, Irish gh, Polish ch, h. 

q as kw  like question. We use q or Q only for Atlanga korelativoy and in qesti - to ask or qesto - question

y like y in yesbeyond.

r is slightly trilled or rolled. (like in Spanish, Italian, Polish, Russian.)

s like s in seebasis.

x like sh in shinerashch in machine.

w like English w 

( dj like English J (John)-  if needed)

DIPHTHONGS.

Diphthongs are combinations of two vowels uttered as a single sound, by one breath-impulse. 

Their pronunciation is as follows:

ay like ai in aisle.

ey like ei in veiney in they.

oy like oi in coinoy in boy.

uy like ui in ruinu(e)y in gluey.

eu like ayw in wayward, or like é(h)oo pronounced together. 

au like ou in out 


Le alfabeto Atlanga konsista de 27 literoy.

Versio 1. a bo co do e fo go ho i jo ko lo mo no o po qo ro so to u vo wo xo yo zo zzo

Versio 2. a be ce de e fe ge he i je ka  el(e) em(e) en(e) o pe qo er(e) es(e) te u ve ew(e) xe ye

 ze zze 

Such forms like -ia, -io, are pronounced as iya, iyo. (Fransio, Polonio, Germanio.)  

(The forms eu, au -(ne-utra, a-uto, a-utoro) can be also pronounced as: ew, aw (newtra, awto, awtoro))

Stress falls most often on the second-last syllable. Le aksento oftisme fala sul prefina silaben. 

Po eksemplo: AtlAngo, capElo (-in english: hat), lAngo, lIngvo -(in english: language) dOmoy

 (houses), fEmoy (women).

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Also such a words as:  pOkter, Algem (etc. - e te plu). 

There are words with stress on the last syllable, which are ended by -all and even by -arr

Atento: le vorto finita pe -all, -arr esta somtempe adyektivo ed adverbo! -ALL, -ARR (of, relating to)

Por eksemplo: totya/e -totyall,  norma/e -normall (usual, usually)

syela/e -syelarr,  sola/e- solarr,  milita/e -militarr

Atento: Ta formo (-all)(-arr) untatas  (esta untata)  solme pos subestansivoy e spesye po

 stilistiko.

This special form is used sparingly and for stilistics only! Always AFTER a noun or a verb.

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I poezio se pada unti (untada) le apostrofo za le (zal) subestansiva finadyo -o

Dom ́ , heym ́ , sol ́  (za, zam+,   instead)

Pro eufonio (euklango e fluventa pronunso) -vortoy i Atlango oftisme finensa pe vokaloy. 

A E I O U o pe ”semivokaloy": M N R L W Y .

Ti lo esta vortoy ko finadoy: S, T, K, X. 

Po eksemplo: ok -8 ed interjektivoy (interjections) klik! -click! xx! hax! -hush! hup! -hop!

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Subestansivo (substantive) maxa (has) le finadyo - O,  suaro - evening (in French: soir) islo -in 

English: island, terdo -in English: earth, ( in German: erde, in Spanish: tierra.) naumo -name, viro -

man (a male person), surelo, hermENo - sister, frato, hermANo - brother, koro - heart.

Plurivo (the plurals) maxa le finadyo - OY , (som(e) qe i Esperanto) homoy (popolo) - people, 

piratoy - pirates,  klaudoy - clouds, garsoy -boys

Adyektivo  maxa le finadyo- A  bona -good, bela - (in French: belle) beautiful, rapida, rap(id)a - fast, 

intresa, intreseda -interesting, nuva -new (in French: nouveau)

(Koncerne kal adyektivoy dusilaba finensanta pe M N R L W Y- (po eksemplo: grana - big,

mala -bad) - se pada unti le formoy pli korta: gran, mal, bon. (I ta formo eufoniall ta vortoy esta 

ambe adyektivoy e adverbivoy.)

Adjectives very seldom take the plural ending -Y, and they must not agree with nouns. 

Atento: Le Verday -The Greens (Le Grinay)


Adverbivo maxa le finadyo -E.  Fare, diste -far away, lente -slowly, prokse -near, fore- in front of


Infinitivo maxa le finadyo -I.  (There is a indefinit preposition = a, ad)

Esti (short form:  -s) -to be, 

maxi (short form:  -x (from: maXi and poXi) - to have, to possess. 

Vadi (short form:  vi ) - to go 

fedi  (suffix:  -ed-) - to make

fensi (suffix:  -ens-) - to make oneself

kuni -to know,  

danki -to thank, 

skanti (singi) -to sing, 

skriti - to write, 

debi (suffix:  -eb-)- must 

padi (suffix:  -ad-) -can 

dezi (suffix:  -ez-) -want 

sombli -to seem, 

prini -to take, 

tribi (suffix:  -ib-) - need,  

resivi   (suffix: -iv(2)) - receive, 

Au - Preposition used to mark the infinitive of a verb. 

Mi glada  Tum vidi. = Mi-s (esta) glada, ke mi vida Tu. – I am happy to see you.

Mi vidi le flio au korsi. = Mi vidi, kel flio korsi. =  Mi vidi le flio korsanta – I see the girl running.

Le konvyeno sombla au esti yu finita.

Lo-s facile kritiki, me lo-s zore (au) fedi. – It is easy to criticize, but it is hard to work. 

Mi pada lekti = (Mi lektada) – I can read.

Se pada presekfedi le infinitivo pe vortuleto: ”au”   

(Spesye qem tezza infinitivo koma sentenzo!)

Au skanti lo-s ne facile - It is not easy to sing.

Komes ( au ) dikti! Kom au dikti! Komdiktes! - Start talking!

Lo-s ne facile ( au ) skanti.

Mi dezi au komidis to - I wanted to eat it. (Mi tom komideza)

Au trefadis (padi trefis) tu - to-s ma revo. 

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A - as indefinit preposition. (Like ”je" in Esperanto.)


Glaso di vino to-s glaso plenta a vino.  (Also: Glaso plentER vino!)


He took her by the hand - Hi prinis li a (xe) le mano. (al mano OR: xel mano.)

A qema horo…  tu insengensis timpe?  (… tu va sengen timpe?)

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PRI QANTERO:

how  many? Qer,  Qer  pauno tu deza? = Qe grana qanterom di pauno tu 

deza? OR: Lom qero di pauno… (Atentes ke ta-kause lo ne diktiba: Qer a 

paunoM tu deza?)  A nutrifo mu maxa (mu-x) tere mu triba. ( Lom nutrifo mu-x.)

————

Le matro fedis le rumo a pura. 

Se nauma li a Rozino. 

Conoy titolis hi(m) a  profesoro, me posem hi montrensis a (este) simpla instruisto. 

Se konsideris ta difekto totye a (qezze) (este) signolesa. Hayses le rumo a varma!

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TEMPOY

Lom tempoy (tempivoy) e modoy (modivoy) mu krea pe presekfedo le verbo pe persona 

pronaumo o korelativa vortetoy som pe advo (adizzo) dil finadyo tempall ho modall:

Pasintemo (Estintemo, Timpo)- I.  Mi vadi, I went, mu skriti -we wrote, lu dormi- they sleep

Estantemo (Tampo)- A.  Tu dikta -you are saying, li lekta -she is reading

Futuro  (Estontemo, Tompo)- O.  Li vido - hi, she, it will see

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LE FORMO PERFEKTA:

The perfect aspect (ya to-s nezzesa!) formitas (ti il infinitivo) pel finadoy: 

-I+S , -O+S, -U+S

(But only for Pasintemo, Futuro and Konda modo!)

                                   Also sudden and momentary action!

Po eksemplo: mi skritiS - I have (already) written, (Mi yu skritis) I had written. Mi

 vidiS hi - I have seen him. Mi finos - I will have finished. Lu komis korsi -They have 

(already) started to run. Hi mortis. – He has died. (But: Hi morti = hi esti mortanta. – 

He was dying.)

Qono lerno Atlango, ta aprasos ta lango.

1. Atento: Il modo imperativa (-es) le -S esta cem (always) sul fino.

2. Atento: le finadyoy -iS, oS, uS (pli forta signalo di perfekta modo) esta untata

 solme ya to nezzesa!

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Imperativo -ES

Mu fedes to! -Lets (we) do it ! Vades! Ves!- go! Vyen! - come! Vames! (Vam! Nu!) 

 -Let ́s go!

For!  Foren! - Forwards!   Far! - Away!

E yal eufonia situdo purmesa - mu untada korta, unasilaba imperativoy:

Don! - Give!  Mir! - Look!  Max! -Have! Ven! ( ventes!) Wait! 

E ti: Diktes! - Dik! -Say!  Es! Estes! Ens! -Be!  Bles! - Bless! Es Blesta! = Blestates!

 Pyens! (pyenses! - Think!) Stop! -Stop! Korses! Kors! -Run! Kom! -Begin! 

 Plis farv(ad)es - Please, go away.  (Plis) Favore, ne v(ad)es - Please, do not go. 

Also:  Estens, Ens! -Become! (with a suffix -ens- (make yourself, himself))

Qezze le imperativo se pada unti til vorteto: LAS. (Lases!)

Let him go! - Las hi vada! Las hi va!

Las mu feda to! -Lets (we) do it ! Las mu vada! Vades! Ves!- go!) Las to esta… - Let it 

be...

You can also use: Ke solme… - May…

May you be happy - Ke solme tu (esto) felica. 

May it be!- Ke solme!  Oha-la! (in Spanish: ojalá!) 


Subyuntiva formo - subjunctive form:

Mi prega, ke hi vyenes. – I ask that he comes.

Mi dezira ke tu estos num sana (sanida). – I wish you to get healthy again. 

Mi bringis (kanportis) le buko, po ke tu tom lektes.– I brought the book for you to read.

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In indirect speech Atlango uses the imperative after verbs such as: want, wish, order, advise, tell

 etc. where English uses the infinitive.

Mi deza ke tu vades ka Fransio  -    I want you to go to France.

Mi ordesis ke hi vades hejmen    -    I ordered him to go home.

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Konda modo (kondivo)

The simple conditional is formed by: - U   Lu bildu (konstruktu) - They would construct

The past conditional is formed by: - US   Lu bildus (konstruktus)  - They would have constructed

( If he would run, we would catch him - Ya hi korsu(s), mu him keptu(s).)

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Persona pronaumoy. 

MI- I 

TU - you  (also single form)  (ZZI- more familiar and also plural form.)

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TO   - it  (objects, things)  also: TADYO

TONO - objects and persons, TENO - female, TANO -masculine.

(LO -  dummy subject.)

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HI - he 

LI - she 

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RI - she, he (gender neutral, instaed of TONO)

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MU -we 

TU - (Vu) -You (plural)

LU - they (TONOY)

Refleksivo:

SE - (oneself)

1. Nepersona pronaumo:

SE, UNO - one, (they, people, also: UNAY)

Vespere se-s kansa.

2. Nepersona pronaumo: LO ( -impersonal "it", dummy subject, grammatical subject, fact, 

situation.

 The pronoun LO:

1. Lo refers to an indeterminate object - to a fact, action or situation rather than to a thing: 

Prin(es) ta pomo, mi dezira lo, Take this apple, I desire it (= I desire you to do so )

2. Lo as an impersonal "it" with adjectives: it's cold - Lo-s kolde (frige)

3. Lo as an impersonal "it"( dummy subject) with verbs:

Lo pluva - it rains - it is raining. (You can also say: se pluva.)

Lo-s le kfina -It ́s five o ́clock

Lo esto Serdo tompe - It will be Wednesday tomorrow.


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For euphonious purposes or to avoid misunderstandings between pronouns we can add - o -. 

For  example: mi, li, hi to = omi, oli, ohi, oto - e - mu, lu = omu, olu -we, - e - se = ose - self.

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sel - self. po eksemplo: Tu sel lektes - Read (for) yourself. Mi sel tom fedis -I have made it 

myself. (mi fedis to sel) selstansa - independent (sindependa) Tyem le royo sel videzi to.

Nepersona pronaumo: se (situation, state - when there is no visible subject )

Po eksemplo: Se dikta - They speak, Uno pyensa -se pyensa - One thinks

Se diktes qom se deza. - Let people say what they like . (Les se dikta qom se deza)

Tu trompa tu sel!

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Le difinita artiklivo - LE

Le is used before any noun which refers to something or someone that has been mentioned earlier.

Use LE where you could just as well use TA or TRA. 

Untes LE qey tu simple egalbone untada TA o TRA.

People for whom use of the article offers difficulties (e.g. speakers of Chinese, Russian, Polish,) may at first elect not to use it at all.

le urbo - the town, 

le Verday -The Greens ( le Grinay)

Article LE are usually dropped in headlines. ( ”NUVA KLENOY DIL ROYANO.”)

I pronunso, literaturo e poezio se unta formoy pli korta:

dil o di-l = di le, del o de-l = de le, kal -ka le, kil - ki le, pril -pri le, po - pol, sul - su le, il = i le, 

sobrel - sobre le, prol - pro le, konfe le - konfel… etp.

di le popolo- dil popol ́, ( dil popol ́) de le domo- del dom ́, (ka le skolo - kal skol ́

Ho simple ne untes ta artiklivo!   di popol ́, de dom ́


Nedifinita artiklivo ne estenta i Atlango me Tu pada unti: un, uno 


TABELO DI PRONUMOY ADYEKTIVA E POXIVA:

Di qa? - Whose

Le poxa emfatikivoy  (+ NA)

ma- my                         Emfatika:  le ……  mina

mua -our                       Emfatika:  le ……  muna

tua - your, yours           Emfatika:  le  …… tuna

tona- her, his, its,         Emfatika:  le  …… tona  ( tadyo (object) - le …. tadya)

( persons, animals and objects)  

ha- his                          Emfatika:  le  …… hina

la- her                          Emfatika:   le  …… lina

lua -(their)                    Emfatika:  le  …… luna

(to -this, it) la - its, of this

Refleksiva pronaumo:  sa - one`s    Emfatika:  le  …… sena

Adyektiva pronaumoy:

(Lom le adyektiva pronaumoy: mua, tua, lua - mu pada pronunsi qezze: "mwa, twa, lwa”! Me prefe  i 

poezio) 

Atento: Le formo lingvall (le … -a) untatas sparime e po stilistika skopoy.

This special form is used sparingly and for stilistics only!

Le emfatika finadyom le + NA se pada unti ko: 

Di qa? whose, of whom, one ́s.  

Somebody ́s - di alga

Po eksemplo:

Hi ne intresi pril saudatoy sena

Di qa to-s domo? Qona to-s domo?

To -s le domo mina

Mi fate ne kuna di qa (qona) to-s kulpo.

Di qa gosto mi esta, di ta fyestom mi fyesta.

Qono jola pri algona desfelico, ta ne restos sin puno.


Deklino di subestansivoy:

Genetivo: di - le lango di le (dil) totya homaryo - the language of the whole humanity.

Eks: Le syelo esta di blua koloro. (Le syelo esta bluaya, ho maxa blua koloro.)

Dativo: ka  (kan+) le purto - to the harbour

Lo-s ti tezza dativa formoy korta: ka mi - min, ka tu- tun, ka hi- hin, etc.

Por eks: Nu, dones to ka mi! - Nu, don to min! - Well now, give it to me!

Sing it for me - Skantes to min. (Skantes to po mi)


Akusativo: - m, lom

Mi vida le purto, - me: (inverted sentence structure: - mi le purtom vida. Mi ama tu -I love you

me : Tum mi ama. (Lom Tu mi ama)

Hi skrita intres(ed)a nuveloy, - me: (inverted sentence structure: - Lom intreseda nuveloy hi skrita.

I alga okazo (plurivo)   se untoda akuzativa partikulo - lom

Yago lom drakoy - hunting for drakes. (Yago kontre drakoy. Yago a drakoy.)

Direction:

You can use: le korelativa vortuleto -EN to show MOTION TOWARDS: 

Let’s go to the house - Mu vades kal domo. OR: Mu vades domEN.  

ATENTO: (In that case do not use ” le ”!) 

Put it outside the house -Pondes to eksten (eksteren) (Pon ́ to eksten!) 

Put it there - Pon to tren.

Vokativo: (He!) (man! - he, homo! )

Vokativoy Atlanga. Interjections:

Well!  well now! - Nu! Vam!

ahoy!   - He-hoy! He!

alack!  - He-las! - Vanido!

hello!  - He-lo! Saluto! He! Hay!

WoW! - He-la!  Wau!

Lo-s makse importa pronaumoy:

1. Le pronaumoy untita za subestansivoy: - o  (Pos lu ofte sekfa verbo )

PERSONO:

qono?-who? (also relative for person) algono -someone, tono -this person, trono-that person, 

cono -everybody. nono -nobody

Pluriva formo:

qonoy?  tonoy, tronoy, conoy, algonoy, nonoy

NEPERSONO:

qo? -what? (also relative for things) algo - something, to -this, tro -that, co -all, no - nothing 

Qo to esta? What is this? Qo evis? -What has happened?  Qo evos? -What will happen? 

To evos. - It will happen.

Pluriva formo:

qoy?  toy, troy, coy, algoy, noy (nadoy)

We can also use more eufonious and emphatic form:  qadyo? -what a thing? tadyo - that thing, 

nadyo - no thing,  cadyo - everything, all

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Atento: Le pronaumo Lo (dummy subject) presekfa verboy i reverta ordino:

There is a mistery island. Lo-s alga misterioyosa islo. (L-esta alga…)

2. Le pronaumoy adyektiva e distributiva: -a

qa? -who, which? (also relative for both person and things) alga -some, any, certain, ta -this one

 tra -that one, ca - each, every (distributive), na -nothing

Pluriva formo:

qay?  tay, tray, cay, algay, nay

Qa evo? - What a event? Ta evo - This event. Qa to esta? (Qa to-s?)  -Which (who) is it?

 Conoy (collectively) paroli e ca (distributively) i sa lango. - Everyone spoke and each in his own

 language. Or: Conoy paroli e cono i sa lango.


Qalitezzo:

Le qalitezza pronaumoy adyektiva: -ezza

qezza?-what kind? algezza-some kind of, tezza-such a, cezza -every kind of,  in this way - te, ta-

mode, in such a way: tezze, tezzamode.


Atlanga korelativoy (po situdo e tempo):


MODO (modeEo) manner - e  

QE? -how , ALGE - samehow, TE - in this way, TRE - in that way, CE - in every way, NE - no, in no

 way ( ne = neu!, Oh ne!)

LOKEYO place - ey  

QEY? - where? ALGEY - somewhere, TEY - here, TREY - there, CEY- everywhere, NEY - nowhere.

TEMPO  time - em    

QEM? - When? ALGEM -anytime, TEM - now (tyem), TREM - then,  do, CEM -always, NEM - never.

QANTERO quantity- er  

QER? - How much? ALGER - some quantity,  TER - so many,  TRER ---, CER - the whole quantity, 

NER - none.

DIREKSO direction - en  

QEN? - Where to? ALGEN - somewhere (to), TEN - in this direction, TREN- in that direction, CEN - 

in all directions, NEN - in no direction.

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KAUSO cause - Pro +  

Pro qo?  (Qakause?) Why?  Pro algo (Algakause)- for some reason, Pro to (Takause) - so, for this, Pro 

tro (Trakause) - for that reason, Pro co (Cakause) - for every reason, Pro no (Nakause) - for no reason.

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POXO possesion (maxo) - ia 

QIA? - whose? whose, ALGIA - someone’s,  TIA - this one’s,  TRIA - that one’s, CIA - everyone’s, 

NIA - nobody’s.


Qalga -whichever , qalgo, qalgadyo -whatever, qalgono - whoever, qalgem -whatever time, qalgia -

anyone’s,  ce -(ca-mode, in every way, however, nevertheless

Qaya? - In which color, nuance? Naya- colorless, Caya - moltekolora. 

Syelarkaya - in rainbows colors

Qanye? - In which year. Canye - every year. Tranye - last year. (pasintanye)

Atento:

Solme le korelativa vorteto ”ey”(loko) funka qezze sindependa sufikso e prinada le finado -o

 Eksemple: koqeyo - kitchen

Le korelativa vorteto ”em” esta le sufikso "hala" e do deba esti prezentita il vortaryo!

Eksemple: estontemo - future (futuro), adolescence - jovemo. Me ne:  problemo, femo.


(Pli grana tabelo dil korelativoy esta sul advepagino.) 

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DI PERSONO:

qona? -of which person? algona -anyone`s

tona -of this person, (also animal), trona -of that person, cona -everybody`s

nona -nobody`s (na-persona)

DI NEPERSONO:

di -... o, di qo? di algo - of somthing, di to -of this thing ( di qono? di qa -whose, which one`s? di 

qo -of which thing? )

(---)

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Relata pronaumo: qa -which, which one, who (qono)

Qa homo esta makse prokse? Which man are nearest ?

Le homo, qa (qono) trey stara - That man, who is standing there.

Qa libro-s intreseda? - Which one (of these) books is interesting?

Ta, qa-x molte piktadyoy. -This one, which has many pictures. 

She´s the person which I love - Xi-s le persono qam mi ama. Or: Xi-s le persono lom qa mi ama.

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do -so, then

Tem , qem - Tem, do.../ Tem, qe.../

tyem - now

un, una, uno -(alga, algono) -one, certain

Otra vortoy importa:

Tezzo! - voila! (Vo-la!) (P: Vamo!)  Tezzo-s...

to... to... Alterne alga situdo ed otra, alga evo ed otra: to marxante, to korsante hi vyenis kal

 domo.

qi - interrogative particle 

ye(s) -yes

ne - no (in no way - na-mode) 

nekfe,   ne… nekfe…  - nor,  neither … nor  (Mi ne skritis ka hi nekfe go skribi. Mi ne fuma nekfe 

unta alkoholo.

Nekfe timpe nekfe tampe mi resivis letero). 

ni - (ne totye, ne totyagrade) not completely, not wholly

te - so (in this way- ta-mode )

e(d) - and, ( kay = e ti) - and also 

ka, kan-  to (ka le = kal)

inse -  into, ( insel = inse le)

po, (po ke) , por- , in order to (po le = pol)

pe,  per- by

da - from  

si, sin- -without

aste -till, until

de - out of, (de le = del)

i , in-  -in

xe - at, by, in case of 

a (ad) 1.(as indef.prepn. like in Esperanto - je) To-s plenta ad akfo. 

          2.with indefinitives -hi vadis a xerki xi. A dansi lo ne-s facile. Mi konsilus ka tu a lektis ta buko. (Mi konsilus ka tu lektes ta buko.)              

kortem - soon 

pre, antey - before, in front of (fronte di)

pre, antem - before in time 

jem, prem pas, yustem  - just a moment ago

pos, pose, posem, pos tem (in time) -after (desfronte di, posey)  bakem - back in time

enke- still, yet

num, denuve - again, once again, (enkevreme)

drem, drem(e) - during, while  

————————

tempo - time

tampe - today

timpe - yesterday

tompe - tomorrow

————————

ya - if   

yu - already  

yo, fate, - verie, porverie   - indeed

yuste - just

yustem - just now, (akuratem, yustyem)

prekortem, antekortem, kortem pas  (a moment ago)

yustey - just here

inte, inter-,  between

ke  -for, that

solme -only

me -but

ambe- both

otra - another

zora, zore   difficult

zor(e) -(ni) konpenge    barely 

pro  -because of

bo, pro to ke, takause ke, -because

om - by (movement)  - pas(e)

pri -about 

ho (hod) -or

ko, kon-, - with, together (kone ko)

dis(e) -dispersal, separation

sub(e) -under

ve, ver- -through

plo -too much  ( super-)

trans(e) - behind, to the other side

outside - ekstey

inside - iney, insey

su, sur-, (su le = sul) - on

ti(e) -also, (kay(e) = and also, not to mention)

molte, mol - a lot of, much

pokte - a few (a small number of)  

mikre - (desmolte) (adv.) - little

plus, pluse (aldone, otraparte, sobre to, pluse to) - moreover, except, apart from

pokta -some, pokter = poktero di…

prefe, plibone - rather

za, zame, zam-, -instead  Za riposi, hi labori. Za vadis heymen, li vadis kafeyen. 

P: (Zamripose..., zamvade…)

 xley -in different places

rap, rapem, raptem - immediately, (raptyem), (raptey - very near)

far - away

qezze, qe (kaze) - as , as if

kaze -as, as if

tame (doke)- however.  (To-s vera, me… ), Lo pluva - tame (doke) mu vades. 

byen (byenke) - although

di -(also follows expressions of quantity, weight,

mesure.) pli di akfo - more water, plenta di vino

de - from, also: fedita de, kreita de ( krugo de metalo)  also: krugo metall, krugo demetala,

————————

as (being) qe, qezze, =estante (as an expert she knows = a spertisto li kuna. 

Hi qezze (a) prezidento eleksis hi lom sekretaro. Hi trakti hi lom venkinto.

Or:  qezze - as (being) to be, in the character, quality of.  Qezze eksemplo - as being an example.

              Mi, (a, qezze) prezidento, eleksis hi lom Viceprezidento. 

               Mi, qezze,  prezidento, eleksis hi a (este)Viceprezidento. 

-------------------

Prol eufonio mu pada unti  (untada) "e" sul fino di tezza vortoy. Po eks: pas - pase, pos - pose 


Kelka importa verb(iv)oy:

answer (reply) respond-i, (resp-i), repl-i

appear - aperi

appear (look) - aspekti

appear as (seem) - sombli.

arrive - arivi,  (come) vyeni

ask (question) - qest-i

be -esti,  -s

born be- naski

bring  - bringi, adveporti, kanporti, feci

build  - bildi, konstrukti.

buy  - kompri.

concern  (relate to) - koncerni 

congratulate - grati, kongrati 

continue - dremi, kontini 

cook - kokfi

desire deziri 

disappear - desaperi 

drink - drinki

eat  -kami, -ko,  (yendi) (breakfest = matinkamo = matinko, dinner = dyemko, supper = suarko)

fly - flugi

give - doni

greet - saluti

kiss - besi

know (be acquainted with) - kuni, kunesi

know (by learning) - kunodi

lead (guide) - gvidi

let - las, lases (lasi)

like - pyasi

listen - skuti

love - ami

look at - miri

make (something) fedi,  -ED-

need potrib-i, tribi -IB-. Po eksemplo: Ne dankibe = Lo ne-s (po)tribo a danki.

be necessary - esti nezzesa

pray (communicate with God) - pregvi.

prefer - prefi.

prepare - preperi

propose - propondi

put (on something) - pondi, plasi

save (from danger) - salvi

save (on computer) - sav-i , seyvi )

say -dikti (diktis)

search for - xerki

smile - smili

guard - gardi

happen - evi

have - maxi (to possess - poxi, -x)

hear - audi

help - helpi, aydi

hold - holdi, kontyeni, inmaxi

hope - esperi

joke - joki

keep - tyeni, holdi

stand, be - stari, stansi

take - prini

talk (able to speak a language) langi, paroli

talk (conversation) took, konverzi

tell (say) - dikti

tell a story - kenti

thank - danki

try -  prubi, PRU-

use - unti

want - dezi -EZ-

watch on - spekti

work - labori

understand - kunprini, kaprini

------------------------------------------------------- 

 

NUMERALOY

0 -nul(o) (zero) 1 un(o) 2 du 3 trin 4 kfar 5 kfin 6 seu 7 zem 8 ok 9 nin 10 dyes(o) 

 ( dyes-e ) or ( dyeS  -S- )

11 dyes-e -un (UNSO (-S- )), 12 dyes-e -du (DUSO), 13 dyes-e-trin (TRINSO), 14 dyes-e-kfar

(KFARSO), 15 dyes-e-kfin (KFINSO) 16 dyes-e-seu (SEUSO), 17 dyes-e-zem (ZEMSO), 

18 dyes-e-ok (OKSO), 19 dyes-e-nin (NINSO)  

pokte-S-anya,  es-anya -, dyes-e-anya ... teen years old

dozen = DUSO

 (e-dyes) or (-T-) 

duto -20, trinto -30, kfarto -40 kfinto, -50 seuto -60, zemto -70, okto - 80 (okedyeso) ninto -90

or:

duedyes -20, trinedyes -30, kfaredyes -40, kfinedyes -50, seuedyes -60, zemedyes -70, okedyes - 

80,  ninedyes -90

cento - 100

tauso (tausento) - 1000, 

miliongo -1 000 000  

miliardo- 1 000 000 000

1947 - tauso nincento kfarto zem

1968 - tauso nincento sewto ok (dyes-e-nin seutook) (ninSo seuToOk) 

2002 - dutauso du

2013 - dutauso trinsa (duto trins(o))

2017 - dutauso zems(o) 

Adjektivoy numerall:

-esm- or -a  first - unesma, una (prima), the 8th -okesma, the 80th -le oktesma ho le okedyesesma, 

the12th -le dusa, le dusesma

Multiple: -opl-

duople -double , kfarople -fourfold

Collective numeral: -ale, -all

unale, unall -one by one, kfaralo -quartet, qezze-l dualo = duale = duall -  i grupo di du.

duale, duall,  by twos, in pairs. (parel-mode) tausale, taus(ent)all, by thousands,  kfarale, kfarall, by 

fours.

okaledi, to form into groups of eight.

KFINALO (kfino) di musikantoy pludi il salongo. 

Fraction: 

-parto -(e)frakso -f-

dufrakso (halo) -half, 1/2,(dufo)

trinfrakso 1/3 (trinfo) , kfarefrakso 1/4 (kfarfo), seufrakso - sixth 1/6 (seufo), 1/10 dyesefrakso

 = dyesfo, centefrakso 1/100 (centofo), 3/4 trin-kfarfo, 5/6 kfin-seufo

Numbers can take an adverbial ending:

une-(prime) firstly; in the first place - unall

due- secondly; in the second place - duall

qezzer, - er:  at the rate of, so many at a time. 

P: uner, duer triner kfarer kfiner seuer zemer oker niner dyeser… etp.

lu drinki qezzer un glaso, lu drinki uner glaso -they drank one glass each 

mi lekti le buko i ca dyemo qezzer seu paginoy. P: mi lekti le buko cadyeme seuer paginoy. 

Le drapo kosti qezzer 2 dolaroy pormetre.

Lu resivis qezzer kfin pomoy. = Lu resivis 5 pomoy po ca. = Ca de lu resivis 5 pomoy.

1. Mu vehi qezzer kfinto (kfinedyes) kilometroy cadyem.

2. Mu vehi kfinter kliometroy ca-dyeme. 

3. Mu vehi kfintero di  (a)  kliometroy ca-dyeme.

Aritmetika kalkuloy:

Adizzo: (Addition) 12 + 10 = 22 dyeso-du plus (P: adve) dyeso  esta (ekfa)  duto-du 

Subetraho: (subtraction) 21 - 3 = 18 duto-un minus  trin esta (ekfa) dyeso-ok

Moltopledo: ( vremedo) (multiplication) 3 x 8 = 24 trin ople ok,  ho trin moltopledata 

pe ok, esta (ekfa) duto-kfar 

Divando: (division) 69 : 3 = 23 seuto-nin su (divita pe, ve(r) ) trin esta (ekfa) duto-trin

a2 = a kfadra (kfadrata) o a2 = a i duesma potenzo

PRI TEMPO:

-esma, -a, -ema

Qa-s horo? Qema horo-s? Qa-s tempo? - What time is it? Lo-s le oka. Lo-s le okema. Lo-s le okesma

It is eight o ́clock.

Lo-s hal pos le okema. (okesma) - The time is half past eight. A (xem) qa horo lo ariva le trayno? 

Qa-hore?

Ma trayno departa al (a le) zemema. Or:  zemesma.- My train leaves at seven. 

Le okema antemeridye)- Eight a.m.

Le okema posmeridye -Eight p. m.

Po espri dremo, se unta:  da ... aste: Mi dormi dal unesma astel seuesma. 

"Le" untatas cem po indiki horo:  Tyem lo-s le kfara. Mi inlecensis al (a le) dyeso-dua. OR: …al dusa, 

dusesma. 

Le trayno farvados dyes minutoy antem le oka. (le okesma)

P: Be on time - A tempigis


AFIKSOY:

Prefiksoy:

adve - in addition. adizze,  advi, adizzi, advedoni - to add 

bay - to avoid, evit-i,  bayvadi-i, bayveh-i, baykontakti - to avoid a contact 

bau - (bauaga = from: blagan = bedlam, chaos, disorder)  baufedi - to make a mess

be- ( betrakt-i) As prefix with nouns and verbs - besemini - sow (a field) [in verbs] used to mean that 

someone  or something is treated in a particular way. To coronate - be-krun-i ( like in Dutch: 

bekroning) bewail - bepyori, bepyensi - reflect  (= pripyensi)

bre-  break, cease - bresi- bres!  Hi brediktis (bresis) sa storyo -She interrupted speaking her story. 

Brevades!  = Halt!  Bre! - Stop! Stope! Bres! - Break!

ci - about (around) cirke, cirkey, cimiri, civadi (cirkevadi)

da, da- - from

de, de-, out of.  devadi - to go out

des(e)- opposite: deskovri- discover, desavantajo -disavantage

dis(e)  - shows separation. disvadi - to go in different directions, disvoyo -road-fork

eu- (also: bon-) nice, positive, pleasant, cosy -  eulekta (eulektebla), cosy- euheyma, 

euaspekta - good-looking

far-  (away!)  means removing, disappearing, distance, spoiling. farvadi - to go away, to leave, 

fardormi - to spoil time by sleeping, faresto - absence

frekfe - frequently,  frekfeviziti - frequently visit. (sometimes) Watch: -andi.

fuy - moraly bad, shamefull - fuyvorto - a bad word

ge- used with the plural to indicate both sexes together - mother and father - geparentoy 

(genitaroy)

-r  intention: I am going to do it - Mi feda-r to.  I am going to read this book - Mi lekta-r ta buko.              

 BUT: Mi intenti (au) fedi(s) to. (Mi intenti tom fedi(s))

Also: Pronoun + -s…onta: mi-s keptonta -I am going to catch, mi esti keptonta-I was going to catch.

gran - intensive or emphatic (for verbs): granpregi -beseech, granaprasi- appreciate, appraise

in -  invadi, invazo = inrush

inse, insen-  - (entre) into,  vadi inse - to go into (entri inse), vehi insel urbo.

kan-  kanvadi -to approach, kanvyeni = to arrive. (arivi)

kom- to start something - hi komdiktis - he has already started speaking. Hi kompludis - He has 

already started to play. 

misum- mis-, mistaken, ill, wrong, incorrectly or negating. (mal-, eror-) misumaudi, misumunti

per - to achieve something through - perforti - to violate, to force

plu- further, still, longer in time. Holdi (retyeni) -retain, (Retain your ticket, please. (Plis) Porfavore, 

pluholdes Tua bilyeto. (Holdes tua bilyeto plu.)

sti- kinship by a second marriage:   sti-matro, sti-patro, sti-filo (halfilo)

xo- marks relative by marriage. (in-law- xoparenta), xogro (brother or sister in low), xofrato 

(xograno)– brother-in-law, xosurelo (xogreno) - sister in low, xofilo - son-in-law, xodotro -

daughter-in-low.

zor- barely, zorvadi - go, move with effort, hardly, barely (ni-).

 (Atento: not soft = harda, not easy = zora, konzore = desfacile

----------------------------------

Sufiksoy:

-ab - augmentative: - domabo - a big house, bonaba -excellent, amabo - gran amo - passion 

Also for verbs: flamabi - ablaze

-ac- disparagement: domaco - hovel, skrivaci -to scrawl, popolaco - mob, t-on-ac-o -wretch (tono -

 this person)

-ady- thing, something made of...: nuvadyo -a novelty, vaxadyo -beef (vaxyendo, vaxyendixo), 

sokradyo -a sweet.

-ayoaya  - color, color nuance, pyelayo - nuance of skin, marayo -sea color, flamaya - in color of

 flames , brick-coloured - brikaya, Qaya? - In which color, nuance? Naya- colorless, (sinaya) Caya - 

moltaya - moltekolora,  somaya - in the same colour, turpaya - in ugly colours. 

-ala-, -all, -arr it denotes: relating to, appropriate to, pertaining to: roy-o - king -royala -royal, 

naturala

-and-  continual action, process: -skantando (singando)- singing, lernando -learning, parolando - a 

speech. 

    -andi -   from time to time, process: - pyorandi - cry, weep sometimes.  

-ar- person who take care of something, occupied with something, who like something:

sekretaro -sekretary, vakaro -kowboy (kawboyo)

-ary- collective, group: homaryo -mankind, arbaryo (furesto) -wood, dyentaryo - (all your) teeth


-estr- chief, head: urbestro  = (town) mayor; postestro = postmaster; navyestro  = (ship's) captain. 

-et - diminutive: -hometo -little man , dormeti -to doze (also used for to make an intimate form) 

-ey- place allotted to or characterized by. kokfeyo -kitchen, kafeyo - café, cafeteria,

kameyo (kamrumo) -dining room.

-ery - manufacture or a shop. bakferyo -bakery, kaferyo (kafeyo) -cafeteria, 

(administration) administ-eryo

     - atery- (more industrial and professional, factory.) oservateryo, sanateryo, bakfateryo

-ezz- abstract nouns: (-ness; -ity; -ship; -hood)  belezzo - (byuto) beauty, blankezzo- whiteness

Also: with the meaning: simila:  enfezza konduto = enfosimila konduto, argila terdo (terdo de argilo) - 

argilezza terdo.

-iny - the suffix -iny- (for males and for females) make from the root an intimate form. 

(But also -et-)

Yohano - Yohinyo (also Yohaneto) patrinyo– dad, matrinyo– mum,

a shorter forms: p-inyo, m-inyo

frato – brother, herminyo – little brother (frateto, fratinyo, fr-inyo) or little sister (sureleto, 

surelinyo, sur-inyo)

-ist-, -alist- person habitualy occupied with something, proffesional, enthusiastic amateur, adherent. 

polisisto -policeman (or woman), atlangisto -atlangist, laboristo -worker

(After ”i, y” - alist - nasiALISTo)

-------------------

-on- a person, animal or a thing with personal qualities: fripono -rascal , mentirono -liar, 

syelskrapono - skyscraper. trinmastono - three masted ship           

 Also a tree: - puarono -pear-tree (puar-arbo), pomono -appletree

     -en- famale person /animal also famale member or inhibitant, adherent,  hermeno - (surelo) sister, 

              kaveleno -mare, Europeno

     -an- male person /animal also male member or inhibitant, adherent

             hermano - (frato) brather, Europano, Amerikano, Kristano - Christian

---------------------


-ofono -speaker of a language (Atlangofono, Hispanofono, Germanofono)

-ozo - disease - tuberkulozo, nervozo

-trubo  -  symptom of a problem, a trubulence  -  nervotrubo, monetrubo (pekuntrubo), klimotrubo - 

vremotrubo

-ur- result or product of action, expression: pikturo -drawing, pinturo - painting, nauzuro -

expression of disgust

-uc- reciprocally (bilateral): amuci - to love each other, evituci - to avoid each other 

-yosa -rich in, abundant,   pluv-yosa -rainy. (maxanta, rika a (ko, pe) pluvo)

-----------------------

Instruments:

-ily- tool, vehicle (mobile):  vehilyo -vehicle,  flugilyo - airplane, automobile - automobilyo

-ij- simple tool, instrument, means:  intyenijo - container, komidij(ary)o -cutlery, flamijoy- matches

 (alumetoy), P: komputijo - smartphone (?)


-ador - (like -ilyo) apparatus - televidADORo, komputADORo


-atar - amataro, animataro, medyataro, avyataro  (a person)


-atoro - factor, agent - denomin-atoro  (a thing)


-uy-  bokso, hod otra intyenijo. Container, receptacle, bokso, kapso, doso  (even book) cindruyo 

notuyo -notebook (kayerno) Also: 

porte- (porte-cindro)-ash-tray,  porte-noto, porte-moneyto (porte-mono)

-ayno- a holder, sheath for the object described by the root: suord-ayno, pyed-ayno

-ubl- mublo - furniture, skritublo, bukubleto, sidelo - sidublo.

------------

-ument- document - pasumento, entrumento (+odo)

-ikul-  a very small particle of a whole: partikulo, akfikulo -drop of water, nivikulo -snowflake, 

pluvikulo -rain drop,  paunikulo – a crumb of a bread

-ul- portion, piece of , element, fragment:  akfulo - portion of water (some water) nivulo - a portion of 

snow, terdulo  - a portion of ground

-ex- rexo, reminder. rexulo,(cetere- konrexe)

-ebl- possibility: (padeblezzo) padebla= ebla, portebla -portable, lektebla -legible

Se pluvebla - It may rain. (se va pluva) kunprineble = kaprineble  - of course  

-em- time. em-i = to spend a time. ( spendi tempo, pasedi tempo) a lektemi - to spend a time reading

-im- tendency, disposition: kumprinima -understanding, diktima , tokima -talkative

- ifo  material: kreifo, verkifo,  pintifo, pentrifo (paint) brenifo - fuel,  bildifo - building material 

-eska-  alike, pintureska - picturesque  (eski - to be alike )

-ind- worthy of: aminda -loveable, fedinda - worth doing, vidinda - worth seeing

-io - names of countries: Fransio -France, Italia, Italio -Italy   

also system or domain: demokracy -demokratio, domain- dominio, dinastio - dinasty, prenzio -press

(-ia  - means also possession = Fransia - of France.)

-yuno- (posono) the descendent of, or a young animal, or a plant.(enfo, posono): gatyuno - kitten, 

hundyuno - puppy. arbYUNo a apling, from a tree.

-inid- (posono) the descendent of, or a young human - royINIDano -prinsano ho prinseno. Karolo - 

Karolposonoy, Karolinidoy = dinastio fondita pr Karolo le Grana. Latininida lingvo, (lango), qa 

davyena de Latino.

-------------------------------------------------------

Halsufiksoy: (Lu deba esti prezentita il ofisyala vortaryo.)

re-  repetition, return.  We are coming back - Mu revyena 

-um- no fixed meaning. It changes basic meaning in an undefinite way. It is used to create a word

 somewhow related or around the idea, object.

Plentumi -fulfil, kruzumi - crucify, komuna (common), komunumo, komunio (community)

 (kolektivio); vyento (wind), vyentumijo (a fan), umijo (gadget).

For euphony and to avoid sound clusters especially between y and i it is possible to use suffix -

-um-  or -al-:  -al- nasialisto (nacionalist), teorialisto, historialisto

-em- (tempo) enfemo - childhood, i modernemo -in modern times (modernem), fyestemo - 

holidays, proksem -soon (kortem). ALSO: When we were going - we met him - Qem mu vadi 

- mu trefis hi. Vadem mu trefis hi.

ALSO:  frekfe- frekfente - frequently,  frekfeviziti - frequently visit. (sometimes) 

-eym - aim (skopo, intento)  Qeymo di ta forsoy, pengoy, strevoy. The purpose of these efforts, 

struggles.  Why? Qeyme? Qaskope? For health purposes - San(id)eyme

-------------------------------------------------------

Sufiksoy fedita de verboy:

Atento. Ca afiksoy di ta tipo se (po)triba unti (se untiba) ko sparimo.

------------------------------------

-ed- 1. causative, (from FEDI - make): - purgedi - clean, ebledi - make possible, kunedi, (to make

 clearer that a verb is transitive) 2. in some (contextual) cases even: to supply with - ex: motivedi, 

ombredi  (pri-ombri, beombri) (like in Esperanto - ig- transitiveda sufikso)

3. to treat by something - toksedi -to poison, (betoksi) BUT: to bomb (bebombi)

ed ko ne-verba finado:

”ed" kuste apera ko verba finadyo, me ti lo maxada O-finadyo, A-finadyo ho E-finadyo. Ta formoy montra le soma agera signo qel verba formo: xarpedo = “le agero xarpedi”, xarpeda = “relata kal agero xarpedi, xarpedanta”, sidedo = “le agero sidedi”, sidede = “relate kal agero sidedi, sidedante”, meryedo, sposedo = “le agero meryedi”, meryeda = “relata kal agero meryedi, sposedi”.


-ens- become, get (from FENSI - become): estensi jova (yuna),  jovensi -to become younger, 

formensi= to form oneself, (like in Esperanto - igx- refleksiva sufikso qa serva po netransitivedi le verboy 

transitiva.

Se ne diktada «mi lavensi, kumbensi, rasfensi, klenensi», bo ta ageroy ne eventa automate, pe se sela, el homo ne resta pasiva xe to; se dikteba: mi lavi mi, kumbi mi, rasfi mi, kleni mi. 

ens ko ne-verba finado:

”ens" kuste apera ko verba finadyo, me ti lo maxada O-finadyo, A-finadyo ho E-finadyo: xarpenso = “le agero xarpensi”, xarpensa = “relata kal agero xarpensi, xarpensanta”, sidenso = “le agero sidensi”, sidense = “relate kal agero sidensi, sidensante”, meryenso = “le agero meryensi”, meryensa = “relata kal agero meryensi”, unenso =  unio “le agero unensi”.

Se ne diktada «mi lavensi, kumbensi, rasfensi, klenensi», bo ta ageroy ne eva automate, pe se sela, 

el homo ne resta pasiva xe to; se dikteba: mi lavi mi, kumbi mi, rasfi mi, kleni mi. 

meryensi: -get married, plibonensi - improve oneself (to make clearer that a verb is intransitive)

——————————————————


-akt-  (ager-i, akt-i) -use, take, act. For ex: xopakti - do shopping

-am- (ami -to love, to like very much) I like to walk - mi promendama, I love to eat - mi komidama.

-ad- (padi -can) - estade (ke)- may be, - to pada esti ke...  -it may be that…

-ax- poxa, maxa: barbaxa (with beard) mankaxa, truvaxa, solaxa, zandaxa playo (zandyosa)

-eb- (debi -must) - Tu spekteba to -You must watch it.

-ez- (de le verbo dezi -want) -mi vadeza ten. - I want to go there. Mi dankezu tum -I would like to

 thank to you. 

-ib- (tribi- should, need)  Ne maxi (Desmaxi) algo nezzesa. Mi helpiba. -I need help. Pri to 

mu ne tokiba. We do not need to talk about it.

-iv (1) grammatical words:  adverbivo, artiklivo le, adyektivo.

-iv (2)(resiVI - receive, get, feel ) mes(aj)-iv-i  -to get a message, fedivi -get a job, (laborivi)

 impresivi- get an impression

-udo (-amyento-esto) state (condition) san-UD-o, ord-udo, trist-udo, tristamyento.

-umento  from: dokumento - a proof document. Identumento. Sanumento. Purmesumento. 

Komprumento.

P: -azz- to dare, bold and daring, audyazzi - I dare say - Mi diktazza, an audacious plan - un planazzo.

  Dare you ask her? - Qi tu pregazza li?  How dare you speak to me like that? 

Qe tu diktazza te ka mi ?

P: -ec - make decision to... (from: decidi, deci) I decided to try again - Mi prubecis to num. They 

decided to marry - Lu (bi)meryecis.



-------------------------------------------------------

Afiksoy propondata:

- envi  (envadi) to go towards something. Go to sleep - dormenvi

- invi  (invadi) to go in. Inves! - Come in! (= Entres!) to go into house - Dominvi

ful- 1. amount. Eks: handful of money - FUL-polmo, fulmano di mon(e)o, fulbrasoy di floroy, 

fulpokso di moneo, fulmaro di amo, fulfuresto di problematoy, fulkapo di ideoy.

But: Polmero di kekyoy. Brasero di floroy. Poksero di monoy.

ful- 2. amount.  (satiated, to the full)  fulfil - fulfedi, plentumi, qi tu fulkomidis? Mi fuldormis.

Pru-  (prubi) to try, Hi prufeda to - He is trying to do it.

vyol- violently, very intensively.

-(e)klang- sound of, resound, howl: mahineklango, gateklango (mewing), vyenteklango -wailing of

 the wind 

vam- to start action suddenly, also ironically. (vami -to start, burst with, into. VAM!)

vama - What a…! Qezza vamo!

———————————————————————————

-ig- to manage with something, succeeded with. Something with a positive result.  From: atigi, suksigi. 

Eks: I have been able to get any more information. Mi resivIGis pli molter info. I don´t know if I´ll be 

able to come. Mi ne kuna qi mi vyenigos. To achieve success - a suksigis. (A fedgis, ad atigis) 

Success- suksigo. Artigo - an artistic  achievement.  Sportigo - an achievement in sport.  Mi prosperis, 

suksigis, tom fedis - mi fedigis to.  I managed to convince him that…  Mi konvinigis hi ke… To-s ma 

grana atigo. Lektigo - Good-read.

-obl- (obligi, obli - oblige, should, ought) -Mi fedobla to (fobla)- I should do it.  

-iz-  organIZo - organization, to organize something (izi).  laboristizo - workers organization, 

cooperative- kooperaktizo

-aryat- institution, organisation, (ofiso, kontoro) secretariat - sekret-aryato, komisaryato

-ob - (mobi - move ) - make a movement with. Make a gesture with. 

Briefly shut the eyes - Palpebrobi, kapobi = kapyesi - to nod by head , manobi - make a movement

 by hand. 

manobi po (ka) - to reach with one ́s hand  

-ifiki- (to produce, to fabricate) martel-ifik-isto = hammer maker

or: -UM-(to produce) - ex: flori , florensi = flor-um-i, to bleed - sangumi (sangi)

-izm -(-alizmo) denotes a system, doctrine or belief: katolik-izmo = Catholicism; real-izmo =

 realism. 

-------------------------------------------------------

pore- (something to be done, that must be done) porefedoy, payable- porepago (a)

pare- (to parry - pare-i) paresolo -parasol (solombrelo), parepluvo = ombrelo (umbrella) 

porte- ( partial container) portevoco -spokesman,  porteovo (ovuyo) - egg cup

-------------------------------------------------------

Le verbo ESTI:

To be - esti. Mi esta -I am.

"Qi esti o ne esti? Lo-s qesto." -To be or not to be? That is the question."

Esta “is/am/are” is often contracted to -s in the present tense.

Se purmesa formoy korta: (me solme i estantezzo) -s

Mi-s felica. I´m lucky. (In Atlango we use "-" to replace missing letters in contractions. )

Mu-s kontenta -We´re glad.

Lu ne-s rika - They´re not rich 

------------------------------------------------------------------

It would be interesting to use -s after nouns in more advanced Atlango: My car is very big.
Ma auto-s molte grana. (Ma auto-s mol gran.)

 ------------------------------------------------------------------

 I korta sentenzoy se dikt-ad-a:

To-s kavelo - It`s a horse. To-s mi, Lo-s mi -It`s me.

Tro-s domo, qa-s le plisme skalta. -That is a house which is the highest. 

Qi tu-s foma?  or Qi-s tu foma? -Are you hungry? 


Retorical questions:

Qo-s? Qo lo-s? - What's wrong?

Qe-s? Qe lo-s? What is the situation? How things are? 

Qi-s? Qi lo-s? Is there...?

Le verbo MAXI: (POXI)

Maxi - to have. Maxi is often contracted to -x in the present tense. (-x from a word: to have - maxi and 

to possess - poxi.)

Mi-x to - I have it. Mi ne-x to - I have not it.

Verb-ordo:

Il kezo qem alga neklarezzoy padu aperis, se unta pre le verbo, le vorteto (montre- indikativa): to 

(impersonal):  lo "it"

(Por konstati alga fato - situdo ) 

Eksemploy:

To logva un misterioyosa homo i tra domo - ho: Lo logva un misterioyosa homo i tra domo. 

It was sunny yesterday - Timpe lo esti solarr. (sole)

Talking about distance:

"How far is it to London? It's 100 kilometers." - Qe longe lo-s ka Londono? Lo-s 100 kilomeroy.

Mu puva unti le helpoverbo LO  impersonal "there": Lo esta (Lo-s)

Talking that something exists in a particular place:

Eksemploy:

Lo esto ( L-esto) molta trafiko i ta urbo tompe (tomorrow). 

Lo eksista til islo qa nauma le Islo Okesma. 

Lo ne-s pli di lakto pol kafo.

Lo estes!  Es! = Be! Let it be!

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 

Le verbo VADI: - to go  

We can use a shorter forms: vi, va, vo, ves! (go!) 

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 

Pri transitiva e netransitiva verbivoy.

Tu pada unti le sufikso -ed- o -ens- o: sen ) You can use the suffix -ed- or -ens- or: sen (ka se)

( -ed- (causative) to make a verb transitive. -ens- (become, get) to make a verb intransitive.) 

me tu pada unti konfe le konteksto! But you can also use with  the context!

Verb transitivity is also contextual. Verbs may be used as transitive or intransitive, if the 

meaning in that sentence is unequivocal. (An intransitive verb does not have an object. You can

 use it without having to add any more words to the sentence.

A transitive verb must have an object.

Mi mobis foren o: mi mobis foren le vehilyo

Also: (to make it clearer) Mi mobensis (mi mobis mi) o: mi mobedis foren le vehilyo

le akfo kokti ( the water was boiling) o: (I boiled some water) = mi koktis pokter akfo. Or: Mi koktis 

pokte (ad) akfo.

Formoy partisipa:

Partisipoy aktiva (aktivo)  finensa pe -inta, anta, onta

vidinta -having seen

vidanta - seeing

vidonta - about to see


Partisipoy pasiva:

Le partisipoy pasiva (finitas) fineba pe: -ita, ata, ota

vidita -seen

vidata -being seen, amato - a loved one

vidota - about to be seen , fedota laboro -Work that will be done

 Eksemploy:

Trovinte pomo, hi tom (lim) komidis.- Finding (having found) an apple, he ate it. Mi esta trovinto dil 

pomo.

(le) amata mia. - My love.

Pagonte hi vadis – He left before paying. (Hi eksis, kaminis)

Partisipoy pasiva (Pasivo) (Passive voice) i aktiva modo finitas pe: -itas, atas, otas (utas) 

Se pada skriti ti qezze: ( -ita-s, -ata-s, -ota-s)

Atlango estis lernita pe studantoy- Atlango lernitas pe studantoy. Atlango lernita-s pe studantoy.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

Se pada untis ti le formo: +est = Atlango lernestis pe studantoy, Atlango lernesta pe studantoy.


------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Kompigativoy:

plisme, makse, (maksemume) eks:    plisme bela o bel-ISMA

most

pli - more  +

----------------------

- ple - more or less  -   egale (plea, plemolta, egala) 

-----------------------

pla- less     - 

least  

plasme, minie (miniemume),  eks:  plasme bela o bel-ASMA

--------------------------------------------------------------------

(plo - too much - plomolte)

(plu - continously)

molte rapide -very fast,  pli rapide -faster, rapidisme -the fastest

(Se pada unti: (le) makse rapida o rapida maksimume)

pla rapida -slower. plasme rapida -slowest. (rapidasme) (Se pada ti unti: (le) minie

 rapida)

pli qe, pli da -more than (pli molte, qe, da)

Pli bela qe hi - Pli bela sobre hi - Pli bela da hi = More beautiful than he.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

THE...... THE..... - QE...... TE..... the more the better - qe pli molte, te pli bone 

Also correct: Ya pli molte, DO pli bone

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Week days - Dyemoy dil zemango (viko): 

Monday - Lundo , on Monday - Lundyem, Lunde

Tuesday - Mardo, Mardyem

Wednesday -  Sredo, Sredyem

Thursday - Jodo, Jodyem

Friday - Frado, Fradyem

Saturday - Sabdo, Sabdyem

Sunday - Soldo, Soldyem

weekend - vikendo, P: vikfinemo. So-dyemoy (Sabd-Sol-dyemoy)

Lo-s lundo tampe - tampo -today

Lo esti soldo timpe - timpo -yesterday 

Lo esto mardo tompe -tomorrow

Le artiklivo LE untatas por indiki le dyemo (le jorno) dil monato. (monato = month)

Mi naskis le zema di Aprilo. Tampe lo-s le kfina di Marto

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Lektante e kompirante le sekfa tekstoy Tu pada simple rekunis ke Atlango esta le lango skaltagrade 

koncisa e eufonia.

Le kompigoy:

Esperanto (1889)

Multaj el cxiuj tiuj junaj kaj maljunaj idealistoj, kiuj aligxis al Esperanto jam dum gxiaj unuaj jaroj kaj esperis gxian tujan enkondukon en cxiujn lernejojn, baldaux estis seniluziigitaj.

Interlingua (1951)

Multos de omne le idealistas juvene e vetere, qui adhereva a Esperanto jam durante su prime annos e sperava su introduction immediate in omne scholas, tosto esseva disillusionate.

ATLANGO (2016)

Molta de conoy ta idealistoy jova ed olda, qa kanensis ka Esperanto yu drem sa prima anyoy ed esperi sa bliksa indukto i ca skoloy, kortem iluzlensis.

In Swedish

Många av alla de unga och gamla idealister, som anslöt sig till Esperanto redan under dess första år och hoppades på dess omedelbara införande i alla skolor, blev snart besvikna.

-------------------------

Esperanto   Prenu ĉiujn tiujn kiujn vi volos kaj lasu ĉiujn tiujn kiuj ne plaĉos al vi.

Atlango       Prin ta cay, qam tu deza e lases ta cay qam tu ne pyasa.

Ido               Prenez ti omna, quin vu volos, e lasez ti omna, qui ne plezos a vu.

English       Take all those, which you want, and leave all those, which you don't like.


--------------------------

Suplementa tekstoy i ANGLA,  ATLANGO,  ESPERANTO,  IDO, OCCIDENTAL,  NOVIAL,

  LATINO SINE FLEXIONE  ed  INTERLINGUA:

ENGLISH

The idea of a world literature, which Herder and Goethe conceived essentialy from the point of view of art, has now gained even greater importance from the point of view of science. For, of the things that mankind possesses in common, nothing is so truly universal and international as science. Now al communication and propogation of science uses the means supplied by language, and so the internationality of science irresistably demands the internationality of language. If we consider that today numerous scientific works, particularly textbooks, are translated into twelve or more foreign languages, then we understand what an immense quantity of labour could be saved, if everywhere on the globe books could be as generaly understood as, for example, musical notes or tables of logarithms.

ATLANGO

Le ideo pri literaturo mondall, qam Herder e Goethe konseptis cefe del vidopunto dil arto, gvanis tyem del vidopunto dil xenzo anke pli grana importo. Bo del kosoy, qam le homaryo poxa komune, no-s te verie universall ed internasiall qel xenzo. Me ca komunikando e propagando dil xenzo unta moyengo dil lango e do internasiezzo dil xenzo nerezisteble postila internasiezzo dil lango. Ya mu konsideros, ke tampe molta xenza verkoy, spesye lernobukoy, translangatas i duso ho plier fremda langoy, do mu kaprinos, qer grana kfantero di laboro sparitadus, ya bukoy ceymonde padu kaprinata te jenerale qe eksemple musiknotoy ho logaritma tabeloy.

ESPERANTO (The accented letter is followed by an x in this text.)

La ideo pri mondliteraturo, kiun Herder kaj Goethe konceptis cxefe el la vidpunkto de la arto, akiris nun el la vidpunkto de la scienco multe pli gravan signifon. Cxar el la komunaj posedajxoj de la homaro, neniu estas tiel vere gxenerala kaj internacia kiel la scienco. Sed cxiu komunikado kaj disvastigado de la scienco uzas la helpilon de la lingvo kaj tial la internacieco de la scienco nerezisteble postulas la internaciecon de la lingvo. Se ni konsideras, ke nuntempe kelkaj sciencaj verkoj, precipe lernolibroj, estas tradukitaj en dek du au pli da fremdaj lingvoj, tiam ni komprenas, kiom granda kvanto da laboro povus esti sxparata, se libroj cxie en la mondo povus esti tiel gxenerale komprenataj kiel ekzemple la muziknotoj aux logaritmaj tabeloj.  

IDO

La ideo pri mondo-literaturo, quan Herder e Goethe konceptis esence del vidpunto dil arto, ganis nun del vidpunto dil cienco mem plu granda importo. Nam del kozi, quin la homaro posedas komune, nula es tam vere universala ed internaciona kam la cienco. Or, omna komunikado e propogado dil cienco uzas la moyeno dil linguo, do la internacioneso dil cienco postulas nerezisteble la internacioneso dil linguo. Se ni konsideras, ke cadie sat multa ciencala verki, specale lernolibri, tradukesas aden dekedu o plu multa stranjera lingui, ni komprenas, qua enorma quanteso de laboro povus sparesar, se libri omnaloke sur la terglobo povus komprenesar tam generale, kam exemple muzikal noti o logaritmala tabeli.

OCCIDENTAL

Li idé pri mund-literature, quel Herder e Goethe hat conceptet esentialmen ex li vidpunctu del arte, ha nu ganat ancor mult plu grand importantie ex li vidpunctu del scientie. Nam de omni comun possedages del homanité niun es tam vermen general e international, quam scientie. me omni comunication e transmediation del scientie usa li medie del lingue. Do li internationalità del scientie ínresistibilmen postula li internationalità del lingue. Si noi considera, que hodie pluri sciential ovres, specialmen libres de aprension, trova se traductet in decidu o plu foren lingues, tande noi comprende quel immens quantità de labor on vell economisar, si on vell posser comprender libres partú sur li glob sam generalmen quam por exemples notes e tabelles de logaritmes.

NOVIAL

Li idee pri monde-literature, kel Herder e Goethe koncepted esentialim fro li vidpunctu del arte, ha nun ganat mem multim plu grand importanteso fro li vidpunctu del scientie. Den ek li coses kel li homaro posese comunim, nuli es tam verim general e international kam li scientie. Or omni comunico e mediatione del scientie usa li moyene del lingue, dunke li internationaleso del scientie demanda nonresistablim li internationaleso del lingue. Si nus considera ke disdi pluri sciential verkes, particularim lernolibres, es traductet en dekdu e plu multi stranjeri lingues, tand nus comprenda qui imensi quanteso de laboro povud bli sparat, si libres povud omnilok sur li globe bli comprendat tam generalim kam exemplim musical notes o tabeles de logaritmes.

LATINO SINE FLEXIONE (INTERLINGUA)

Idea de literatura mundiale, que Herder et Goethe habe intellecto præcipue ex puncto de visu de arte, habe hodie acquisito, ex puncto de visu de scientia, sensu etiam majore. Nam, de commune possesiones de genere humano, nihil es tam generale et internationale quam scientia. Sed omne communicatione et propogatione de scientia ute auxilio de lingua, et ita internationalitate de scientia postula in modo irresistibile internationalitate de lingua. Si nos considera, que hodie plure opere scientifico, in particulare tractatus, es translato in duodecim vel plus lingua extero, tunc nos cognosce quale immane mole de labore pote es præservato, si libros, ubicumque in terra, pote es æqualiter intellecto in generale, sicut per exemplo notas musicale aut tabulas de logarithmos.

INTERLINGUA / IALA

Le idea de literatura mundial que Herder e Goethe concipeva essentialmente ex li puncto de vista del arte, ha nunc ganate ancora multo plus grande importantia ex li puncto de vista del scientia. Nam de omne commun possessiones del humanitate necun es tam vermente general e international quam le scientia. Sed omne communication e propagation del scientia usa le medio del lingua. Tunc le internationalitate del scientia irresistibilemente postula le internationalitate del lingua. Si nos considera, que hodie plure obras scientific, specialmente libros de insenio, se trova traducite in dece-duo o plus linguas estranie tunc nos comprende qual immense quantitate de labor on economisarea, si on poterea tanto generalmente comprender libros ubicumque apud le globo como assi notas musical o tabulas de logarithmos.

 

Ne olves informi ti le conoy amikoy tua pri ta sayto!

Qono lerno Atlango, ta aprasos ta lango! 

Mi invita Tu po fedi linkoy ka ta sayto Atlanga.



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