gramatiko


GRAMATIKO ATLANGA.

18.02.2019)


Gramatiko di Atlango esta molte simpla:

Pronunso i Atlango:

VOWELS. The vowels of the alphabet are pronounced as follows:

a as in English: far.  e as in fiancé,  i as in machineo as in toll,  u as in rural.

CONSONANTS. The consonants  bdfhklmnptvw, are pronounced as in English, and the 

remaining as follows:

c like ch in much.

g like g in go

as in  German and Scotch ch, Spanish j, Irish gh, Polish ch 

j like in French and in English: z in azure,  s in visual.  OR: j like in English  jar. (dj)

( dj like English J (John)-  if needed)

q as KF  like in kvetch, kvetcher

y like y in yesbeyond.

r is slightly trilled or rolled. (like in Spanish, Italian, Polish, Russian.)

s like s in seebasis.

x like sh in shine, ch in machine. (I Atlango:  xautes- to shout, xento -science)

w like English w 

zz like ts in pizza, tsetse, tsar

DIPHTHONGS.

Diphthongs are combinations of two vowels uttered as a single sound, by one breath-impulse. 

Their pronunciation is as follows:

ay like ai in aisleey like ei in veiney in theyoy like oi in coinoy in boyuy like ui in ruinu(e)y in gluey.

ua ue - w-a, w-e, eu like ayw in wayward, or like é(h)oo pronounced together.  au like ou in out , uo like w 


A number of words start with s followed by a consonant. A speaker who finds this difficult can add a 

leading E. For ex: spendes  (to spend) e+spendes, spazo (space) e+spazo, skintes (shine) e+skintes.


Le alfabeto Atlanga konsista de 27 letroy. 

I Atlango ne estenta spesya letroy ko supersignoy qe lo-s i Esperanto.  

 

Numoy: 

versio 1. a bo co do(djo) e fo go ho i jo ko lo mo no o po qo(kfo) ro so to u vo wo xo yo zo zoo 

2. a be ce de (dje)e fe ge he i je ka  el(e) em(e) en(e) o pe qo(kfo) er(e) es(e) te u ve ew(e) xe ye ze zze 

 

Such a forms like -ia, -io, are pronounced as iya, iyo. (Fransio, Polonio, Germanio.)  

(The forms eu, au -(ne-utra, a-uto, a-utoro) can be also pronounced as: ew, aw (newtra, awto, awtoro))

Stress falls most often on the second-last syllable. Le aksento makse (le plu) freqe fala suren le 

prefina silabo. 

Po esemplo: atlAngo, capElo (-in english: hat), lAngo -(in english: language) dOmoy

 (houses), jEnoy (women).

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ATENTO: Also such a words as:  pOkter, Algem, dAurem, (ect. - ytp. - ye te plonge). 

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There are words with stress on the last syllable, which are ended by -all and even by -arr

Atento: le vorto finita pe -all, -arr esta somtempe adyektivo ye adverbivo!-ALL,-ARR(of, relating to)

Por esemplo: totya/e -totyall,  norma/e -normall (usual, usually)

skyela/e -skyelarr,  sola/e- solarr,  milita/e -militarr

ATENTO: Ta formo (-all ) ( -arr ) untata-s  (esta untata)  solme pos subestansivoy ye spesye 

(spesyall) po stilistiko ye toje i letraturo.

Lo apera toje formoy: ala, ale, ara, are 

This special form is used sparingly and for stilistics only! Always AFTER a noun or a verb.

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I poezio se paba untes (untaba) le apostrofo za le (zal) subestansiva finado -o

Dom ́ , heym ́ , sol ́  (za, zam+,   instead)

Po eufonio (euklango ye fluventa pronunso) - vortoy i Atlango le plu freqe finensa pe vokaloy. 

A E I O U ho pe ”semivokaloy": M N R L W Y .

Toje lo-s vortoy ko finadoy: S, T, K, X. 

Po esemplo: ok - 8 (ka)ye interjektivoy (interjections) klik! -click! xx! hax! -hush! hup! -hop!

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Subestansivo (substantive) maxa (has) le finado - O,   islo -in English: island, terdo -in English: 

earth, ( in German: erde, in Spanish: tierra.) numo -name, viro,  homano - man (a male person), 

jeno, homeno, femeno -woman, hermeno - sister, frato (hermano) - brother,  

pueno, joveno - girl, koro - heart, albo - tree,  arbo - decision. (arb-es - to take a decision)


Plurivo (the plurals) maxa le finado - OY , (som(e) qe i Esperanto - ”oj”) homoy, hominoy (popolo) 

- people, piratoy - pirates,  klaudoy - clouds,  garsoy - boys

Adyektivo  maxa le finado - A  buna - good, bela - (in French: belle) beautiful, rapa, rapida - fast, 

intresa, intresenda -interesting, nuva -new (in French: nouveau)

(Konzzerne kal adyektivoy dusilaba sem finanta pe M N R L W Y- (po esemplo: grana - big,

mala -bad) - se untaba le formoy pli korta: gran, mal, bun. (Il formo eufoniall ta vortoy esta 

somtempe adyektivoy ye adverbivoy!)

Adjectives  must not agree with nouns and they very seldom, when needed, take the plural 

ending -y.

Atento: Le Verday -The Greens (Le Grinay)


Adverbivo maxa le finado -E.  Fare, diste -far away, lenke -slowly, proxe -near, close, fore- in front of

And also:  le finadoy ”korilativa”:  -el -em, -en, -er, -ey.

Infinitivo: 

Infinitivo ti Imperativo maxa le finado -ES

ves (vantes) - to go, VES - to go, go!)

estes    (short form - economy of expression!) :  -s) -to be, ES! -Be!

maxes (short form:  -x (from: mAXes and poXes) - to have, to possess. 

fendes (prefix: PRI- or: as suffix:  -END-) - to make  (Esp: ig)

fenses  (preposition: SEM  or: as suffix: -ENS-) - to make oneself (Esp: igx)

dares   (suffix: -AR-) give (also:  permission, to allow someone to do something)

debes   (suffix:  -EB-)- must 

pabes  (suffix:  -AB-) -can 

dezes   (suffix:  -EZ-) -want 

tribes  (suffix:  -IB-) - need

getes   (acquire = akires) GE-) - receive, get - ge-maxes

dikes  - to speak  

sombles -to seem

prines -to take 

vedes - to see

mires - to look

kyantes (songes) - to sing 

skrites - to write, 

trekes - pull

puxes - push

pyens(es) -  think

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Il situdo qem  infinitivo koma sentenzzo mu paba preseqendes le infinitivo pel vortulo: ”po”)

Po kyantes lo-s ne fasile - It is not easy to sing.

Po trefabes (pabes trefes) tu,  to-s ma draumo. (draumo, dyemdrimo - daydream)

Lo-s ne fasile kyantes.

Mi dezi edes to - I wanted to eat it. (Mi edeza to = mi tom edeza.)

Mi konsilu ka tu (po) lektes ta buko. Mi tun konsilu lektes ta buko.

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A  - as indefinit preposition. (Like ”je” in Esperanto.) a le = al,  au+

auestes = to be present at, when)

by, at = a.  The house by the river - Le domo al flumo. Le domo aufluma.

He took her by the hand - Hi prinis li a le mano. (al mano OR: aumane.)

Glaso di vino to-s glaso plenta a (di) vino.  (Plentita auvine)

(Also: Glaso plentER vino.)

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Qome ye  a :

Le matro fendis le rumo (qome) a purga. ( Le matro purgendis le rumo. Le matro (pri)purgis le 

rumo.)

Se (pri)numis li (qome)a Rozo. 

Conoy titolis hi (qome)a profesoro, men posem hi sem montris (qome) a simpla instruisto. 

Se konsideris ta difekto (qome) totye sinsigna. 

Hayses le rumo (qome)a varma!


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TI (about)  QANTERO:

Atento: Q is pronounced as: KF !

how many? Qer,  Lom qer di pauno tu deza? = Qe grana qanterom di pauno tu 

deza? = Qer tu deza di pauno?)  Di nutradoy mu-x tere qer mu triba. 

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TEMPOY

Lom tempoy (tempivoy) ye modoy (modivoy) mu krea pe preseqando dil verbo pe persona 

pronumo ho korilativa vortetoy ye toje pe adizzo dil finado tempall ho modall:

Paxintemo (Estintemo)- I.  Mi vanti, (mi vi) I went, mu skriti -we wrote, lu dormi- they sleep

Estantemo - A.  Tu dika -you are saying, li lekta -she is reading

Futuro  (Estontemo) - O.  Tono vedo - hi, she, it will see

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LE FORMO PERFEKTA:

The perfect aspect (solme ya to-s nezzesa!) formita-s pel finadoy: 

-I+S , -O+S, -U+S

(But only for Paxintemo, Futuro and Konda modo!)

Mu ne unta le formo perfekta il infinitivo! -ES (Atento: also -ENS)

                                   Also sudden and momentary action!

Po esemplo: mi skritiS - I have (already) written, (Mi (yu) skritis) I had written. Mi

 vediS hi - I have seen him,  Mi finos to - I will have finished it. Lu komkorsis -

They have (already) started to run. Hi mortis. – He has died. 

(Atento: Hi morti = hi esti mortanta. – He was dying.)

Hi wanted to kill himself - Hi dezmortens. Hi sem mortezi.

Atento: Il modo imperativa (ti Infinitiva) (-ES) le -S esta cem (always) sul fino.

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Imperativo -ES  (ENS)

Mu fendes to! -Lets (we) do it ! Ves!- go! Vyen! - come! Vames! (Vam! Ves!-Let ́s go!

For!  Foren! - Forwards!   Far! Faren! - Away!

Ti yal eufonia situdo purmesa - mu untaba korta, unsilaba imperativoy:

Dar! (dares!) -  Give!  Mir! - Look! Prin! (Get!) - Get!  Max! -Have! Var! ( vartes!) -Wait!  Ves! 

- Go! ( vantes!) and also: Dikes! - Dik! -Say! Ek! (Ekes!) -Listen!  Es! Estes! -Be! Ens!-Become! Ben!

 - Bless! (Es benita!)  Pyens! (pyenses! - Think!) Stop! -Stop! Korses! Kors! -Run! Kom! -Begin! 

Plis far!(farves!) - Please, go away.  (Plis) Porfavore, ne ves - Please, do not go. 

Also:  Estens, Ens! (estenses!) -Become! (with a suffix -ens- (make yourself, himself))

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LAS:

Qezze le imperativo se paba untes jel (toje le) vorteto: LAS. (Lases!)  

Let him go! - Las hi va! Hi ves! Las hin ves! P: (P: - proposition:)  Hi van (vantes)!

Las mu fenda to! -Lets (we) do it ! Las mu va! - go!) Las to-s… Las lo-s - Let it be...

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KE SOLME ho MEY:

You can also use: Ke solme… (if only) or:  Mey… (may)

May you be happy - Ke solme tu-s felica.    or:   Mey tu-s felica!

May it be!- Ke solme! Mey! Oha-la! (in Spanish: ojalá!

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Subyuntiva formo - subjunctive form:

Mi prega, ke hi vyenes. – I ask that he comes.

Mi dezira ke tu estos  re (denuve)  sana (sanida). – I wish you to get healthy again. 

Mi bringis  le buko, po ke tom tu lektes. – I brought the book for you to read.

(Mi kanportis le buko, qam tu lektes.)

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In indirect speech Atlango uses "ke …  +es" after verbs such as: want, wish, order, advise, tell

 etc. where English uses the infinitive.

Mi deza ke tu ves ka Fransio  -    I want you to go to France.

Mi ordesis ke hi ves hejmen    -    I ordered him to go home.

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Konda modo (kondivo)

The conditional is formed by: - U   Lu bildu (konstruktu) - They would construct

The conditional perfect is formed by: - US   Lu bildus (konstruktus)  - They would have constructed

( If he would run, we would catch him - Ya hi korsu(s), mu him keptu(s).)

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PERSONA PRONUMOY:

MI- I 

TU- you  (also plural form!)  

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TO  - it ,   (This - TA) - person,  (TADO) objects, things

TONO -  persons or similar to person, (TENO - female person, TANO -masculine person).

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(LO -  dummy subject.)

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ZZI - (TONO) (teno ye tano) - she, he  (P: person gender neutral) 

HI - he 

LI - she 

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MU -we 

TU -  you (in plural)

LU - they (TONOY and TADOY (things))

Refleksivo:

SE - English equivalent for”one” and oneself

1. Nepersona  (ye refleksiva pronumo):

SE  ( UNO - one, (they, some people, also: UNAY))

Se kuna nem - One never knows. Matine unay esta dormeza. Serne(m) se-s lazza. 

You don´t have to go - Se ne veba. (Se ne deba v(ant)es), That is not known - Se ne kuna to. 

Se skrita qe se pronunsa. 

Such houses are not built any more - Se ne plonge(m) bilda tezza domoy, bildadoy.

Mi audi goso (klaco), ke…  = I heard a rumor that…

SEM:

As refleksive pronaun is translated: herself, himself, itself, themselves and oneself.

Lu kumbi se - Lu sem kumbi  = They brushed their hair. 

But also to show netransitivezzo:  Tyem lo (sem) kambis ma plandoy. 

Hi lavi le enfo ye posem se (se sel)  =  He washed the child and then himself.

2. Nepersona pronumo: LO ( -impersonal "it", dummy subject, grammatical subject, fact, 

situation.

 The dummy pronoun LO:

1. Lo refers to an indeterminate object - to a fact, action or situation rather than to a thing: 

Prin(es) ta pomo, mi dezira lo, Take this apple, I desire it (= I desire you to do so )

2. Lo as an impersonal "it" with adjectives: it's cold - Lo-s kolde (frige)

3. Lo as an impersonal "it" with verbs:

Lo pyuva - it rains - it is raining. (You can also say: se pyuva.)

Lo-s le qina -It ́s five o ́clock

Lo esto Serdo tompe - It will be Wednesday tomorrow.


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For euphonious purposes or to avoid misunderstandings between pronouns we can add - e -. 

For  example: mi, li, hi to = emi, eli, ehi, eto - kaye - mu, lu = emu, elu -we, - e - se = ese - self.

We can use these forms in Atlango´s poetry.

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sel(a) - self. po esemplo: Tu sel lektes - Lek´ to sel! Read (for) yourself. Mi sel tom fendis -I 

have made it myself. (mi fendis to sel) selstansa - independent (sindependa) 

Esemple: Tyem le royo sel vedezi to.

Nepersona pronumo: se (situation, state - when there is no visible subject )

Po exemplo: Se dika - They speak. Algono (uno) pyensa - se pyensa - One thinks

Se diktes qom se deza. - Let people say what they like . (Las se dik´ qom se deza)

Tu trompa tu sel!

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Le difinita artiklivo - LE

Le is used before any noun which refers to something or someone that has been mentioned earlier.

Use LE where you could just as well use TA or TRA. 

Untes LE qey tu simple egalbune untaba TA ho TRA.

People for whom use of the article offers difficulties (e.g. speakers of Chinese, Russian, Polish,) may at first elect not to use it at all.

le urbo - the town, 

le Verday -The Greens ( le Grinay)

ley Smith, ley Jackson

Article LE are usually dropped in headlines. Esemple: ( ”NUVA KLENOY DIL ROYANO.”)

I pronunso, letraturo ye poezio se unta formoy pli korta:

dil o di-l = di le, del o de-l = de le, kal -ka le,  po - pol, sul - su le, il = i le, 

sobrel - sobre le, konfe le - konfel… etp.

di le popolo- dil popol ́, ( dil popol ́) de le domo- del dom ́, (ka le skolo - kal skol ́

Ho simple ne untes ta artiklivo!   di popol ́, de dom ́


Nedifinita artiklivo ne estenta i Atlango men Tu untaba : un, uno 


TABELO DI PRONUMOY ADYEKTIVA TI POXIVA:

Di qa? Qia? - Whose - QIA

Emfatikivoy  (Le ….  + NA)

ma- my                                    Emfatika:  le … mina

mua -our                                  Emfatika:  le … muna

tua - your, yours                      Emfatika:   le  … tuna

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P: zza (gender neutral)          Emfatika:  le  … zzina

tona- her, his, its - tada          Emfatika:  le  … tona, tada)

Also: tia (di to = t-ia              Emfatika:  le  … tia)                    

(persons, animals and objects)

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ha- his                                       Emfatika:  le  … hina

la- her                                        Emfatika:  le  … lina

lua -(their)                                 Emfatika:  le  … luna

(to -this, it)  tia, tada,  - its)

Refleksiva pronumo:  

sa - one`s                                   Emfatika:  le  … sena

Adyektiva pronumoy:

(Lom le adyektiva pronumoy: mua, tua, lua - mu paba pronunses qome: "mwa, twa, lwa”!  Men prefe i 

poezio) 

Atento: Le formo lingvall (le … -a) untatas spareze ti po stilistiko.

This special form in Atlango is used sparingly and for stilistics only!

Po esemplo:

Hi ne intresi til saudatoy sena

Qia to-s domo? ( Also: Qia-s domo?)

To-s le domo mina

Mi fate ne kuna qia to-s kulpo.

Qono jola ti algia desfelico, tono ne restos si puno.

I Atlango: To-s alga innuvado, ti qia acepto se deba binkonsiles.

(In Esperanto: Ĝi estas ia ennovaĵo, pri kies akceptado oni devas konsiliĝi.)

Deklino di subestansivoy:

Genetivo: di - le lango di le (dil) totya hominero - the language of the whole humanity.

Esemplo: Le skyelo esta di blua koloro. 

Dativo: ka  (kan+) le purto - to the harbour

Lo-s toje tezza dativa formoy korta: ka mi - min, ka tu- tun, ka hi- hin, etc.

Esemplo: Nu, dares to ka mi! - Nu, dar´ to min! - Well now, give it to me!

Sing it for me - Kyant(es) min to. (Kyantes to po mi)

Atento: Mu toje prikortaba Ka aste k´.  Exemplo: Mi dezira ka tu le somo. = Mi dezira k tu le somo. 

Dar to ka mi! = Dar to k mi. Hi sem proxi ka mu = Hi sem proxi k mu.  Come to me! - Vyen k mi! 

(Prounanced as: ktu, kmi, kmu, (as in Russian))

Akusativo: - m, lom

Mi veda le domo, - men: (inverted sentence structure: - mi le domom veda - or: Lom le domo mi 

veda. 

Autom mi kofis - or: Lom auto mi kofis. A car bought I. Mi ama tu - I love you. men : Tum mi ama. 

(Lom Tu mi ama)

Hi skrita intresa nuveloy, - men: (inverted sentence structure: - Lom intresa nuveloy hi skrita.

I alga okazo (plurivo!)  se untaba akuzativa partikulo - lom

Yago lom drakoy - hunting for drakes. (Yago kontre drakoy. Yago a drakoy. Yago po drakoy.)

Direction:

You can use: le korilativa vortuleto -EN to show MOTION TOWARDS: 

Let’s go to the house - Mu ves (vantes) kal domo. OR: Mu ves domEN. Enves! - Come in!  

ATENTO: (In this case do not use ” le ”!) 

Put it outside the house -Pondes to uten. (Pon ́ to utey!) 

Put it there - Pon to tren.

Vokativo: (He!) (hello man! - he, homino! )

Vokativoy Atlanga. Interjections:

Well!  well now! - Buen! Vam! O-key!

ahoy!   - He-hoy! He! 

alas! alack!  - He-las!  He-lak! - Vanide! Grete, Greteje, Triste.

hello!  - He-lo! Saluto! He! Hay, Hey!

WoW! - He-la!  Wau!

Lo-s makse importa pronumoy:

1. Le pronumoy untita za subestansivoy: - o  (Pos lu freqe lo seqa alga verbo)

PERSONO:

qono?-who? which, (also relative for person) algono -someone, tono -this person, trono-that person, 

cono -everybody. nono -nobody

Some  (indeterminate) - Nalga, Nalgono. 

Pluriva formo:

qonoy?  tonoy, tronoy, conoy, algonoy, nonoy

NEPERSONO:

qo? -what? (also relative for things) algo - something, to -this, tro -that, co -all, no - nothing 

Qo to esta? (Qo-s to?)What is this? Qo eventis? -What has happened?  Qo eventos? -What will 

happen? 

To (lo) eventos. - It will happen.

Pluriva formo:

qoy?  toy, troy, coy, algoy, noy (nadoy)

We can also use more eufonious and emphatic form:  qado? -what a thing? tado - that thing, 

nado - no thing,  cado - everything, all

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Atento: Le prenumo Lo (dummy subject) preseqa verboy i renverta ordino:

There is a mistery island. Lo-s alga misteria islo. (P: L-esta alga…)

2. Le pronumoy adyektiva ye distributiva: -a

qa? -who, which, which one? (also relative for both person and things) alga -some, any, certain, ta -

this one  tra -that one, ca - each, every (distributive), na - nothing

Pluriva formo:

qay?  tay, tray, cay, algay, nay

Qa evento? -What a event? Ta evento - This event. Qa to esta? (Qa to-s?, Qa-s to? -Which is it?

Conoy (collectively) paroli ye ca (distributively) i sa lango. - Everyone spoke and each in his own

 language. Or: Conoy paroli ye (men) cono i sa lango.

Demonstrative: to, tono, ta, tra (this, that, this one)

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Qalitezzo:

Le qalitezza pronumoy adyektiva: -ezza

qezza?-what kind? algezza-some kind of, tezza-such a, cezza -every kind of,  in this way - te, ta-

mode, in such a way: tezze, tezzamode.


Atlanga korilativoy (ye situdo e tempo): e, ey, em, er, en, el 


MODO (modeEo) manner - E  

QE? -how , ALGE - samehow, TE - in this way, TRE - in that way, CE - in every way, NE - no, in no

 way ( ne = neu!, Oh ne!)

LOKEYO place - ey  

QEY? - where? ALGEY - somewhere, TEY - here, TREY - there, CEY- everywhere, NEY - nowhere.

TEMPO  time - em    

QEM? - When? ALGEM -anytime, TEM - now (tyem), TREM - then,  do, CEM -always, NEM - never.

QANTERO quantity, group,- er  

QER? - How much? ALGER - some quantity,  TER - so many,  TRER ---, CER - the whole quantity, 

NER - none.

DIREKSO direction - en  

QEN? - Where to? ALGEN - somewhere (to), TEN - in this direction, TREN- in that direction, CEN - 

in all directions, NEN - in no direction.

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KAUS(EL)O cause  - el

QEL?   Qakause?  Why?

ALGEL Algakause  for some reason, 

TEL    - Takause - so, for this, 

TREL - Trakause - for that reason, 

CEL   -  Cakause - for every reason, 

NEL   - Nakause  - for no reason.

----------------------------------------------------------

POSSESION (poxo, maxo)  - ia

QIA? - whose? QIA- whose, ALGIA - someone’s,  TIA - this one’s,  TRIA - that one’s, CIA - 

everyone’s,  NIA - nobody’s.

Qalga -whichever , qalgo, qalgado -whatever, qalgono - whoever, qalgem -whatever time, qalgia -

anyone’s,  ce - ca-mode, in every way, however, nevertheless

QANYe? - In which year? Canye - every year. Tanye - this year, Tranye - last year. (pasintanye)

Atento:

Solme le korilativa vorteto ”ey”(lokeyo) funka qezze sindependa sufikso ye prinaba le finado -o

 Esemple: koqeyo - kitchen

Le korilativo ”em” esta le sufikso "hala" ye do (doke) lo esteba prezentita il vortero!

Esemplo: estontemo - future (futuro), adolescence - jovemo. (Me ne:  problemo! Betre: problemato, 

ye probo)


(Pli grana tabelo dil korilativoy esta sul advepagino KORILATIVOY.) 


-------------------------------------------------------

Pli molte ti rilata pronumo: 

1. P: Rilata pronumo:  QA - QAM  ( qa le = qal)

qa, qo+m, qono+m, qa+m, qe, te,  - who, which, that, like, just

Esemploy:

Li pinti qe  vyera pintisto.  She painted like a real painter.
Yohano (Djon) nauda qe  fixo.   John swims like a fish.

-------

Adamo esta te  grana qe Nilso.  Adam is as big as Nils.

-------

Ves ka hi qa-s trey, ye qes (qeses) hi pol voyo.  Go to him who is over there, and ask him for the way.

———

BUT:

Hi labori qezze or: qome instruisto.  He worked, as a teacher.

Qezze (qome) programisto hi ne suksidis.    As a programmer he had no success.

-------

Le televistoro, qam mi kofis, esta molte buna.      The TV set, which I bought, is very good. 

Le homino qam tu vedi timpe, tu trefaba tampe. = Lom homino qam tu vedi…or: Le homino vedita-s 

pe tu timpe,  trefabata-s pe tu tampe.  

-------

Boke elektro paris (sem paris), lu ne koktabi kafo. As the power went, they could not cook coffee.

Qe (solme) mu entris le dezerto, le aqo finis.     Just as we walked into the desert, the water went out.

Qel plaudo (solme) finis, lo kompyuvis.              Just as the game ended, it started raining.

Qem(e) mi denvi (desentri), (do) le mobijo fonis.      As I was leaving, the phone rang.

Le rezulto n-esti te mala qe  mi esperi. The results were not as bad as I had expected.

-------

Qezze mi lengi!       As I've longed!
Qezze li falti tu!      As she has missed you!
Qe kortem te eble. (Te kortem qe eble)   As soon as possible. (Swedish: Så snart som möjligt)

———

2. The relative possessive adjective is:  QIA

Mi helpezi kal pueno qia ( di qa) ombrelo kleptita-s.  I wanted to help the girl whose umbrella got 

stolen.

Le enfoy qia kristnaska giftoy rompita-s fensis trista.  The children whose Christmas presents got 

broken became sad.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

3. Korilativa rilata pronumo:  QA -which, which one, who (qono)

Qa homino esta makse (le plu) proxe(y)? Which man is nearest ?

Le homino, qa (qono) trey stara - That man, who is standing there.

Qa libro esta intresenda? - Which one (of these) books is interesting?

Ta, qa-x  molte piktadoy. -This one, which has many pictures. 

She´s the person which I love - Li-s le persono qame mi ama.  (Li-s le persono qam mi ama. 

Or: Li-s le persono lom qa mi ama. )

-----------------

do, doke, dokem -so, then

Tem , qem - Tem, do…(dokem) / Tem, qe.../

tyem - now

un, una, uno -(alga, algono) - one, certain

Otra vortoy importa:

Tezzo! Tezze! - voila! (Vo-la!) Vamo!  Tezzo-s… Tey-s...

to... to... Alterne alga situdo ye otra, alga evento ye otra: to marxante, to korsante hi vyenis kal

 domo.


Qi ? - interrogative particle ( in Esperanto: cxu?)

yes -yes

ne, (neu) - no, not  (in no way - na-mode) 

Prefixes and prepositions:

ni,   ne… ni…  - nor,  neither … nor.  Mi ni fuma ni (mi) unta alkoholo.

Ni timpe ni tampe mi getis brifo. ( gebrifis)

preske, nepreske - (ne totye, ne totyagrade) not completely, not wholly

te - so (in this way- ta-mode )

ye, kaye -  and  (I Atlango mu untaba ”kaye” po eufoniezzo. Ya se tom triba)

toje, je - also, too (je le = jel)

kan+ (as PREFIX) to,  ka - to (as PREPOSITON)  (ka le = kal) to the...

inse -  into, ( insel = inse le)

ti, (sobre) - about (ti le = til) Lo timata ti… Lo timata sobre… 

po, (po ke) , por+ (as PREFIX), in order to (po le = pol)

pe,  per+   by

ri, rin+ (rilate ka) relating to  (-all, -arr)

da, dan+  from, also: because of, reason, (In Esperanto: pro)

si, sin+ -without

aste -till, until (aste le = astel, astem, astey)

de, den+ - out of, (de le = del)

i , in+   in (i le = il)

a, au+ - at, by

a (au)  (as indef.prepn. like in Esperanto - je) To-s plenta au aqo. (Also: To-s plenta di aqo. To-s 

plenta da aqo.)          

kortem - soon 

pre, antey - before, in front of (fronte di)

pre, antem - before in time 

ju, yustem, ju pas, yustem pas - just a moment ago

pos, pose, posem, pos tem (in time) -after (desfronte di, posey)  bakem - back in time

enke- still, yet

re, denuve (danuve) - again, once again, (enkevolte, renvolte)  de komo - denkome. 

(Ex: To renesta tey. - It is here again.)

daurem, dau, interem, inem - during, while  

————————

tempo - time

tampe, P: adyem - today

timpe,  P: idyem - yesterday (timpadyeme)

tompe, P: odyem - tomorrow

————————

Seasons of the year:

spring - springo, springEMo 

summer - verno, vernEMo

autumn, fall - otuno, otunEMo

winter - vintro, vintrEMo

————————

ya - if   

yu - already  

yo, fate - indeed - (vyere, porvyere, vyerfate) 

yuste - just

yustem - just now, (akuratem, yustyem = yuste tyem) ju, P: tuy - tuyem

prekortem, antekortem, kortem pas  (a moment ago) - antem

yustey - just here

inte, inter+,  between

ke  -for, that

solme -only

men -but

ambe- both

otra - another

zora, zore   difficult

zor(e) -(preske) konpenge  -  barely 

bo, po to ke, takause ke,  P: boke -  because

ho (hod) - or

ko, kon+, - with, together (kone ko) Verb:  prikones, sem kones

dis(e) -dispersal, separation. Verb:  pridises, sem dises

sub(e) -under    Verb:  prisubes, sem subes

ve, ver+ -through,  Verb:  priveres, sem veres ve

pluke -too much  ( super-)  Verb:  priplukes

trans(e) - behind, to the other side   Verb:  pritranses, sem transes, transenves

ute - outside, beyond,  utey - outside, go outside - vi uten, ut-en-v-es, utem - out of time

iney, insey - inside   Verb:  in(s)endes, in(s)ens

su, sur+, (su le = sul) - on    Verb:  surendes, surens

molte, mol, molter - a lot of, much,  mol = very,   very much = mol molte,  molte

pokte - a few (a small number of)  

mikre - (desmolte) (adv.) - little  Verb:  primikres = mikrendes, sem mikres = mikrens

plus, pluse ( otraparte, sobre to, pluse to, adve, adve to) - moreover, except, apart from

pokta -some,  - pokte, pokter, pokto di...

prefe - rather

za, zam+, zame, -instead  Za riposes, hi labori. Za ves heymen, li vis kafeyen. 

P: xley -in different places

raptem - suddenly, (raptyem), (raptey - very near)

rape, raptem -  suddenly

blikse,  tuy -  immediately, Bliks! Tuy!

bliksey - very near (in place) -  tuy a, tuy ka

far - away

within - iney

qezze, qe (kaze) - as , as if,  

kaze   Verb:  prikazes, kazendes

doke - however.  (To-s vyero, men… ), Lo pyuva -  men doke mu ves. 

trozze - although (yanke - anke ya)

di -(also follows expressions of quantity, weight, mesure.) (plier) pli di aqo - more water, plenta di 

vino.

de, den+ from, also: of, fendita de, kreita de ( krugo de metalo)  also: krugo metall, krugo denmetala,

Verb:  denendes, denens, denvi

da, dan+  from  Verb:  danendes, danens(es), danves

————————

as (being)  qezze,  qome (as an expert she knows = qezze spertisto li kuna. 

Hi qezze (qome) prezidento elektis hi po sekretaryono. Hi trakti hi a venkinto. 

Or:  qezze - as (being) to be, in the character, quality of.  Qezze( qome) esemplo - as being an 

example.

              Mi, qezze prezidento, elektis hi (po)a Viceprezidento. 

             

-------------------------

Po eufonio mu untaba "e" sul fino hol komo di tezza vortoy:

 Po esemplo: pas - pase, pos - pose ,  skuses - eskuses

-------------------------

Pokta importa verb(iv)oy:

answer (reply) sfares, reples, Reples ma qesoy! Danvortes! P: Sfar! P: desqes

appear - aperes

appear (look) - aspektes

appear as (seem) - sombles 

arrive - arivi,  (come) vyenes

ask (question) - qes (-es)

be -estes,  -s

born be- naskes, (to give a birth -bortes)

bring  - bringes, adveportes, kanportes, P: feces

build  - bildes, konstruktes.

buy  - kofes, xopes

concern  (relate to) - konzzernes, ri,  rilati pe, ka

congratulate - grates, kongrates 

continue - daur (em)-es, kontin-es

cook - koktes, 

desire dezires

disappear - desaperes , P: farperes

drink - drinkes

eat  -edes, -EDo (breakfest = matinEDo, dinner = dyemEDo, supper = sernEDo)

fly - fluges

give - dares -   suffix: -AR- (dares signaloy = signal-AR-es )

greet - salutes

intend (going to) - intentes , va (I am going to watch this film - Mi va mires ta filmo.)

kiss - beses

know (be acquainted with) - kunes, kuneses

know (by learning) - kunes (kunABes)

lead (guide) - gvides

let - las, lases 

like - pyases

listen - ekes

love - ames

look at - mires

make (something) fendes,  PRI+, -END-

need  tribes (potribes)  -IB-. Po esemplo: Ne dankibe = Lo ne-s tribo (po) dankes.

be necessary - estes nezzesa

pray (communicate with God) - pregves.

prefer - prefes.

prepare - prepares

propose - propondes

put (on something) - pondes, plases = prilokes = lokendes

save (from danger) - salves

save (on computer) - sav-es , seyves )

say -dikes 

search for - xerkes

smile - smiles

guard - gardes

happen - eventes -evento

have - maxes (to possess - poxes, -x)

hear - audes

help - helpes, aydes

hold - holdes, kontyenes, inmaxes

hope - esperes

joke - jokes

keep - tyenes, holdes

stand, be - stares, stanses

take - prines

talk (able to speak a language) langes, paroles

talk (conversation)  konverzes, loqes, interloqes, interparoles

tell (say) - dikes

tell a story - kentes

thank - dankes

try -  prumbes, PRUM-

use - untes

want - dezes -EZ-

watch on - spektes

work - labores

understand -  kapes, kunprines

------------------------------------------------------- 

 

NUMBROY, SIFROY:

0 -nol(o) (zero) 1 un(o)    2 du    3 trin    4 qar    5 qin    6 seu   7 zem    8 ok    9 nau  10 dest(o) 

 ( dest- ) or ( deSt  -S- )

11 desto -un (UNSO (-S- )), 12 desto -du (DUSO), 13 desto-trin (TRINSO), 14 desto-qar

(QARSO), 15 desto-qin (QINSO) 16 desto-seu (SEUSO), 17 desto-zem (ZEMSO), 

18 desto-ok (OKSO), 19 desto-nau (NAUSO)  

pokte-S-anya,  es-anya -, desto-anya ... teen years old

dozen = DUSO

( dest or:  -T-) 

duto -20, trinto -30, qarto -40 qinto, -50 seuto -60, zemto -70, okto - 80 (ok(e)desto) nauto -90

or:

du(des)to-20, trindesto-30, qardesto-40, qindesto-50, seudesto -60, zemdesto -70 ok(e)desto

- 80, naudesto -90    

22 - dudesto-du, 33 - trindesto-trin ….

cento - 100  

centemo = zerzeremo (..00 centanyo)

mil(o), (tausento) - 1000, 

miliongo -1 000 000  

miliardo- 1 000 000 000

1947 - mil naucento kuarto zem. (un nau qar zem, nauso-qarto zem))

1968 - mil naucento seuto ok (desto-nau seudesto-ok) (nauSo seuToOk) 

2002 - dumilo du

2013 - dumilo trinsa (duto trins(o))

2017 - dumilo zemso

2018 - dumilo oks(o) 

As in English, numbers may be given out by naming the digits only: 

2018 - du nul(zero) un ok

1300 - un trin zer-zero


Adyektivoy numerall:

-esm- or -a  first - unesma, una (prima), the 8th -okesma, the 80th -le oktesma ho le 

okedestesma, the12th -le dusa, le dusesma

Multiple: -opl-

duople -double , qarople -fourfold

Collective numeral: -ale, -all

unale, unall -one by one, qaralo -quartet, qezze-l dualo = duale = duall -  i grupo di du.

duale, duall,  by twos, in pairs. (parel-mode) tausale, taus(ent)all, by thousands,  qarale, qarall, 

by fours.

okalendes, to form into groups of eight.

Le QINALO (qino) di musikantoy plaudi il salongo. 

Fraction: 

-parto -(e)frakso ho -f- 

dufrakso (halo) -half, 1/2,(dufo)

trinfrakso 1/3 (trinfo) , qarefrakso 1/4 (qarfo), seufrakso - sixth 1/6 (seufo), 1/10 destofrakso

 = destofo, centefrakso 1/100 (centofo), 3/4 trin-qarfo, 5/6 qin-seufo

Numbers can take an adverbial ending:

une-(prime, P: primere) firstly; in the first place - unall

due- secondly; in the second place - duall

trine, qare, qine, seue, zeme, oke, naue, deste...

OR:

Collective numeral - PO(r) - at the rate of, so many at a time. 

Po un(e), (porune) po due, (pordue) po trine, po qare, po qine, po seue, po zeme, po oke, po naue, po 

deste. (pordeste)

lu drinki po un glaso -they drank one glass each 

mi lekti le buko i ca dyemo po qar ( [porqare) paginoy. 

Le drapo kosti po 2 dolaroy pormetre.

Lu getis po qin pomoy. = Lu getis 5 pomoy po ca. = Ca de lu rezzeptis (getis) 5 pomoy.

1. Mu vehi po qinto (porqindeste) kilometroy ca dyemo.

3. Mu vehi qinto di kliometroy ca-dyeme.

Aritmetika kalkoloy:

Adizzo: (Addition) 12 + 10 = 22 desto-du plus (P: adve) desto  esta  duto-du 

Subetraho: (subtraction) 21 - 3 = 18 duto-un minus  trin esta  desto-ok

Moltoplendo:  (multiplication) 3 x 8 = 24 trin ople ok,  ho trin moltoplendata 

pe ok, esta  duto-qar, trin volte ok esta duto-qar.

Divando: (division) 69 : 3 = 23 seuto-nau su (divita pe, ve(r) ) trin esta (egala) duto-trin

a2 = a qadra (qadrata) o a2 = a i duesma potenzzo


TI TEMPO YE KLOKO:

Qalemes, Qalklokes - to measure time

Qa kloko-s? Qakloke? Qera kloko tyem esta?  Qer-s kloko?

What time is it? 

Lo-s le trina. Lo-s le trinesma. Lo-s (le) trin-kloko  (P:  Lo-s (le) trinklo)

A qera kloko lo ariva le trayno? Qakloke?

Ma trayno ariva, farva (denparta) al (a le) zema. Or:  al zemesma. Or: al zem. - My train leaves at 

seven. 

06:05 = seu klokoy (ye) qin (minutoy), 06:25 = seu klokoy duto qin

07:30 = zem klokoy ye dufo. (ye hal(o)

01:15 = un kloko ye qarfo. ( qinso minutoy pos le una. Qarfo pos le una.)

02:45 = du klokoy ye trin qarfoy. Qarfo kal trina. 

For ”half past” use: ye dufo or ye halo.

4 o´clock and a half (hour) - Qar klokoy ye dufo.

Le okesma antemeridye - prenune  - Eight a.m.

Le okesma posmeridye  - posnune  - Eight p. m.

Po esprives  dauro, se unta:  da ...  aste: Mi dormi dal un(a, -esma) astel seu(esma). Mi dormi 

dau(rem) qin klokoy. 

"Le" untatas cem po indikes kloko:  Tyem lo-s le qara. Le trayno farva (farenvos) desto minutoy 

antem le oka. 

P: Be on time - VyenABLes kal tempo. VyenABLes preksem. 

qal+em+ijo = krono+metro

—————————————————————————————————————————————————————————

VOLTE 

volto time (in counting); occasion (repetition); turn (in series); singlavolte, cavolte every time (that), all the time, whenever; moltavolte:  many times, often (when), repeatedly; qermolte: how many times; poktavolte: sometimes; lo-s ma volto,  it is my turn; mi veda li du-volte, il monato: I see her twice a month. 

Exemplo: Hi  modenda (modifa), sa voco, ye parola volte skalte volte dolte.

volto - occasion

volte- once

voltem - sometimes

algavolte - sometimes

cavolte -at all times, always

tavolte - at that time

enkevolte - once more

cavolte qem - when ever

duvolte - twice

renvolte - once again

adevolte - in addiction

—————————————————————————————————————————————————————————

AFIKSOY:


Prefiksoy:


adve - in addition. adizze,  adves, adizzes, advedares - to add 

bau - (bauaga = from: balagan = bedlam, chaos, disorder)  baufendes - to make a mess

be- ( betrakt-es) As prefix with nouns and verbs. To treat or supply with, provide with.

 - besemines - sow (a field) Used to mean that someone  or something is treated in a particular way. 

To coronate - be-krun-es ( like in Dutch: bekroning) bewail - bepyores, bepyenses - reflect, 

bekolor-es = kolorend-es = prikolores

bin- reciprocally (bilateral) repruce: binames - to love each other, bineves - to avoid each other 

cirke, cir- - about (around) cirke, cirkey, cirke-mires, cirkeves, cirvantes, cirves

da, dan-  from  danves -  to leave,

de, den- out of.  denves - to go out (desentres)

des(e)-  opposite: deskovres - discover, desavantajo -disavantage            

dis(e) - shows separation. disen-ves - to go in different directions, dise(n)voyo -road-fork

eu- (also: bun-) nice, positive, pleasant, cosy -  eulekta (eulektebla), cosy- euheyma, 

euaspekta - good-looking, bunaspekta

far-  (away!)  means removing, disappearing, distance, spoiling. farves - to go away, to leave, 

fardormes - to spoil time by sleeping, faresto - absence

fel-  mis-, mistaken, ill, wrong, incorrectly or negating. (mal-, eror-) felaudes, felmuntes, felado

fre- frequently, (freqe) freves, frevizites - frequently visit. (sometimes) 

fuy - moraly bad, shamefull - fuyvorto - a bad word

gran - intensive or emphatic (for verbs): granpreges -beseech, granaprases- appreciate, appraise

gve- used with the plural to indicate both sexes together - mother and father - (gve)parentoy 

 gve- ”both sexes” - gvelerneyo (school) go to bed with sy. - gvekames 

hal- (half) marks also relative by marriage. (in-law- halparenta), halfrato 

halsurelo - sister in low, halfilo - son-in-law, haldotro -daughter-in-low.

in -  inves = entres, invazo = inrush

inse, insen-  - (entre) into, ves inse - insenves - to go into (entri inse), vehes insel urbo. (vehes urben)

kan-  kanves -to approach, kanvyenes = to arrive. (arives)

kom- to start something - hi komdikis - he has already started speaking. Hi komplaudis - He has 

already started to play. ( Hi yu komis plaudes)

nul  - (Solme ko subestansivoy. Instead of long forms: sin...endes, sin…ens(es)) Take off, to deprive - 

nulkepes algono (sinkependes) - decapitate - behead,  nulaqes (sinaqendes), take off 

obstacles - nulstakles, nultrubes, nulzores -plifasil(end)es,  nulmoltes,  nules - to get rid of

om -  by (movement) eves - avoid), Verb: eves, omENDes

par-  break, cease - pares - PAR!  Hi pardikis (paris) sa storyo -She interrupted speaking her story. 

Parves! = Halt!  Par! - Stop!  Par! - Break! Mu parplanis - We have broken our plans.

per - to achieve something through - perfortes - to violate, to force

plonge-  (plilongem = plongem) further, still, longer in time. Holdes (rentyenes) -retain, (Retain your 

ticket, please. (Plis) Porfavore, plongeholdes Tua bilyeto. (Holdes tua bilyeto plongem.) Mi amo tu 

plongem astel morto.

qal- means investigation, exploration, valuation, testing, study, checking, to ask about.

 For example: weigh - qal-vektes .(vektomeres) qalmeres algo - to measure something. 

Qallonges - measure the length. Qalvyeres - investigate the truth.  Qalmondes - esplores mondo. 

Qalatlanges - study about Atlango

xo- kinship by a second marriage:   xo-matro, xo-patro, xo-filo (halfilo)

zor- barely, difficult, zorves -  move with effort, hardly, barely (ni-).

 (Atento: not soft = harda. Not easy, difficult = zora, konzore = desfasile


————————————————— 

Sufiksoy: 


-abl-  ALSO: To manage with something, succeeded with. Ables… Something with a positive result. 

Ex: I have been able to get any more information. Mi getablis pli molter info. I don´t 

know if I´ll be  able to come. Mi ne kuna qi mi vyenABLos. To achieve success - fendABLes

Artablado - an artistic  achievement.  Sportablado - an achievement in sport.  Mi prosperis, 

suksidablis tom fendes - mi fendablis to.  I managed to convince him that…  Mi konvinablis hi ke… 

To-s ma grana atingo, atingado, atingablado.

-abl-  capability: nemortabla - immortal, an instructive book - instruktabla buko (instruktara)

-ac-  disparagement: domaco - hovel, skritaces -to scrawl, popolaco - mob, t-on-ac-o -wretch 

(tono -this person)

-ad-  thing, something made of...: nuvado -a novelty, vaxado, vaxedado -beef ), sokrado -a 

sweet.

-ag-  act, behave - konages - cooperate, renages -(renaktes) -react, agando - action(s)

-ala-, -all, -arr  it denotes: relating to, appropriate to, pertaining to: roy-o - king -royala 

-royall, naturala

-algino - pain - headache- kepalgino, (mi kepalgina), mi algina (a, da) - I have a pain... 

-and-  (agand-es) 1. continual action, process also habitually: - kyantando (songando)- 

singing, lernando -learning,  parolando - a speech. Ando di lerno - a prosess of learning.

    2. -andi -   (ande) from time to time, process: - pyorandes - cry, weep sometimes. 

( Hi vizitandi mu. - He visited us a great deal.  Hi ande viziti.  - He continually paid visits. Hi andis vizites - 

he kept on visiting.)

-ary-  person who take care of something, occupied with something, who like 

something: sekretaryo -sekretary, vaxaryo -kowboy (kawboyo = aryo di vaxo), komisaryo (eno) -

commissar, farmer - farmaryo (farmisto) 

-atery- (more industrial and professional, factory.) oservateryo, sanateryo, baqateryo

-ayno-  a holder, sheath for the object described by the root: suord-ayno, pyed-ayno

-eft-  refto, reminder. reftulo, (cetere- konrefte)

-ery - manufacture or a shop. baqeryo -bakery, kaferyo (kafeyo) -cafeteria, 

(administration) administ-eryo

-estr- chief, head: urbestro  = (town) mayor; postestro = postmaster; navyestro  

(ship's) captain. 

-et - little, diminutive: -homineto -little man , dormetes -to doze (also used for to make an 

intimate form)

-ev -   to avoid, ev-es,  veh-ev-es, tref-ev-es, kontakt-eves - to avoid a contact - eves kontakto 

-ezz-   abstract nouns: (-ness; -ity; -ship; -hood)  belezzo - (byuto) beauty, blankezzo- 

whiteness Also: with the meaning: simila:  enfezza konduto = enfosimila konduto, argila terdo (terdo 

de argilo) - argilezza terdo.

-ikul-  a very small particle of a whole: partikulo, aqikulo -drop of water, snovikulo -

snowflake, pyuvikulo -rain drop,  paunikulo – a crumb of a bread

-iny -  the suffix -iny- (for males and for females) make from the root an intimate 

form. (But also -et-)

Yohano - Yohinyo, (also Yohaneto) patrinyo – dad, matrinyo – mum,

a shorter forms: p-inyo, m-inyo (papo, mamo)

frato – brother, herminyo – little brother (frateto, fratinyo, h-inyo, fr-inyo) or little sister (sureleto, 

surelinyo, sur-inyo)

-ist-, -alist- person habitualy occupied with something, proffesional, enthusiastic 

amateur, adherent.  polisisto -policeman (or woman), atlangisto -atlangist, laboristo -worker

(After ”i, y” - alist - nasiALISTo, P: nasi-aryo)

-itiso -  denote inflammation of an organ - (larynx - larinkso) larinksitiso - laryngitis 

-ul- portion, piece of , element, fragment:  aqulo - portion of water (some water) snovulo - a 

portion of snow, terdulo  - a portion of ground

-uy-   bokso, hod otra intyenijo. Container, receptacle, bokso, kapso, doso  (even book) 

cindruyo notuyo -notebook (kayerno) 

————— 

korilatezzay:

-er-  (korilat-vorto) collective, group: hominero -mankind, albero (furesto) -wood, dyentero - (all 

your) teeth

-ey- (korilat-vorto) place allotted to or characterized by. koqeyo -kitchen, kafeyo - café, cafeteria,

edeyo (edrumo) -dining room.


—————————

personalay:

-ona person, animal or a thing with personal qualities: fripono -rascal , mentinono -liar, 

skyelskrapono - skyscraper. trinmastono - three masted ship       

Also a member - sozzi-ono, tim-ono

 Also a tree: - puarono -pear-tree (puar-albo), pomono -appletree

-an male person /animal also male member or inhibitant, adherent

             hermano - (frato) brather, Europano, Amerikano, Kristano - Christian

-en-famale person /animal also famale member or inhibitant, adherent,  hermeno - 

(surelo) sister, kaveleno -mare, Europeno

-ofono  -speaker of a language (Atlangofono, Hispanofono, Germanofono)

-yano - husband, meryano, po esemplo: a husband of a princess - prinsesyano. 

-yeno - wife, meryeno, po esemplo: meryeno di geralo - geralyeno

——————————

-od -  augmentative: granoda = mega, - domodo - a big house, bunoda -excellent, pregodes = 

beseech.  Also for verbs: flamodes - ablaze

-ozyo - disease - tuberkulozyo, nervozyo 

-yosa -rich in, abundant,   pyuv-yosa -rainy. (maxanta, rika a (ko) pyuvo)

-um- 1. kemia elementoy (le subestanzzoy fundamentall qa konsistenda le Universo.)

Hidrogen - Hidrogenumo , Lithium - Litiumo, Helium - Heliumo. gold - aurumo, guldumo

2. a componet or constituent of a whole. Ingredients . - umoy - kekumoy -ingredients of a cake

3. a natural habitat, sphere of activity, environment. - Aqo esta elemento di fixoy. Aqumo.

4. Le sufikso um ne-x difinita signo. Pe to (perte) se fenda vortoy, qa maxa alga rilato ka to, 

ki stara pre UM. Esemploy: plentUMes - fulfil, oklumes - jektes ameza miro 

ka algono. Cerbumes ho kapumes - forte pyenses, proxume - cirke

P: -um- cloth (kostyumo) - esemple:   kepumo - hat


-----------------------

Instruments:

-oro

1. APARATORO  apparatus (like -ilyo, -ijo )  televistoro, komputoro 

2.  OPERATORO -oro - doktoro, dansoro, operatoro, animatoro, medyatoro, aviatoro

-atoro - (a thing) (agatoro) factor, agent - denominatoro  

-ataryo - (a person) (agataryo) amataryo, animataryo, medyataryo, aviataryo  

-ily- tool, vehicle (mobile):  vehilyo -vehicle,  flugilyo - airplane, automobile - automobilyo

-ij-  simple tool, instrument, means:  intyenijo - container, edij(er)o -cutlery, flamijoy- 

matches  (alumetoy), P: komputijo - smartphone, fonijo (Ay-fonijo?) skritijo - a pen

-----------------------

-ubo - TRUBO (trouble more colloquial) (P: elektrUBo = trouble with electricity. Trouble with 

money- monUBo, monubes) nervubo (nervotrubo)

-ubl- mublo - furniture, skritublo, bukubleto, sidelo - sidublo.

------------


-uj- (suja - dirty) reminder in pejorative -  besuja, prisuja (sujendita) pe fango - fanguja


-ebl-  possibility (also: easy to…) eblezzo = ebla, portebla -portable, lektebla -legible, lernebla - easy 

to learn.

Se pyuvebla - It may rain. (se va pyuves) kapeble - of course  

-ady-   material: kreadyo, verkadyo,  pintadyo, pentradyo (paint) brenadyo - fuel,  bildadyo - 

building material 

-eska alike, (also about colours: guldeska, rujeska, blueska, oranjeska) pintureska - picturesque,  

(eskes - to be alike )

-eja (valeja) worthy of: ameja -loveable, fendEJa - worth doing, vedEJa - worth seeing

-inda - (incline - inklINDes, inklindo = disposition, tendency. tolkative=parolinda, understanding 

= kapinda

- iv- 1. express by words or symbols or gesture. -  esprivo di jolo - jolivo, esprives tristezzo - tristives

2.  - grammatical word.  Ex: Akuzativo

- io -  1. names of countries: Fransio -France, Italia, Italio -Italy   also 

2. system or domain: demokracy -demokratio, domain- dominio, dinastio - dinasty, prentio -press

3. -ia  - means also possession = Fransia - of France.)

-yuno- (posono) the descendent of, or a young animal, or a plant.(enfo, posono): gatyuno - kitten, 

hundyuno - puppy. albYUNo a apling, from a tree.

-inid-  (posono) the descendent of, or a young human - royINIDano -prinsano ho prinseno. 

Karolo - Karolposonoy, Karolinidoy = dinastio fondita pr Karolo le Grana. Latininida lingvo, (lango), 

qa davyena de Latino. Esperantinida lango konstruktita.

-------------------------------------------------------

Halsufiksoy: (Lu deba esti prezentita il ofizzyala vortero.)

ren-  repetition, again or return.  Give it back to me. - Dar mi to re, ren. (re+en)  = Rendares mi to.

Renvyenes, renves - To come back

-ur result or product of action, expression: pikturo -drawing, pinturo - painting, nauzuro -

expression of disgust.

-oy- 1. a special suffix to protect -if possible- from homonyms.  For example: -  antenna - (ant-

en-o) antenoyo, veranda - verandoyo,  birch - betuloyo, (betulo, betulalbo, betulono)

2. a special suffix to shorten long words: klosetoyo - kl-oyo, WC-o, ”loo".

(There are homonyms in Atlango too, as it is in all languages. For ex: in Esperanto: 

planeto - planet or plan-et-o  - a little plan.  But in this case in Atlango we have: Planeto 

- planet. In Atlango it is possible to avoid them also by using the suffix: 

-oyo) Es: planoyo. However sometimes the homonyms are even needed in literature and 

for jokes and games of words. 

For euphony and to avoid sound clusters especially between y and i it is possible to use suffix -

 -al-:  -al- nasialisto (nacionalist), teorialisto, historialisto

-em- 1. (korilat-vorto) (tempo) enfemo - childhood, i modernemo -in modern times (modernem), 

fyestemo - holidays, prosem -soon (kortem). ALSO: When we were going - we met him - Qem mu vi 

- mu trefis hi. V-em mu trefis hi. (Vantem mu trefis hi)

-em- 2. time. em-es = to spend a time doing something, to dedicate time to an activity, a 

process ( paxendes tempo - temp-es)  lektEMes - to spend a time reading.

-eym - (korilat-vorto) aim, (intento)  Qeymo di ta forsoy, pengoy, strivoy. The purpose of these 

efforts, struggles.  Why? Qeyme? For health purposes - San(id)eyme.

Also: Pronoun + -s…onta: mi-s keptonta -I am going to catch, mi esti keptonta-I was going to catch.

-er- (korilat-vorto) Quantity, amount: albERo - forest, hominero -mankind.  Your age - Tua anyero. 

-------------------------------------------------------

va, vi, vo   Intention: I am going to. (even: to try - prum-- Mi va fendes to.  I am going to read this book - Mi va lektes ta buko.   Mi vi fendes to... men lo ne fendablis (to). (Mi intenti fendes to... Mi intenti tom fendes...) 

We are going to go to... Mu va vantes ka...

———————————————————————————

pri - spesyala prefikso neutrala ye kausativa. (to make clearer that a verb is transitive)  Lo signa 

Transitivezzo. (in Esperanto - IG) pripurges - clean, priebles - make possible, prikunes

———————————————————————————

There is also suffix with the same meaning: -END - It is made from the verb FENDES

-end- 1. causative, (from FENDES - make): - purgendes - clean, eblendes - make possible, kunendes, 

(to make clearer that a verb is transitive)     

2. in some (contextual) cases even: to supply with - esemple: motivendes, ombrendes  (beombres - priombres) (like in Esperanto - ig- pritransitiva sufikso)

3. to treat by something - toksendes -to poison, (pritokses) BUT: to bomb (pribombes, bebombes)

end ko ne-verba finado:

”end" kutime apera ko verba finado, men ye lo maxaba O-finado, A-finado ho E-finado. Ta formoy montra le soma aga signo qe le verba formo: xarpendo = “le ago xarpendes”, xarpenda = “rilata kal ago xarpendes, xarpendanta”, sidendo = “le ago sidendes”, sidende = “rilate kal ago sidendes, sidendante”, meryendo, sposendo = “le ago meryendes”, meryenda = “rilata kal ago meryendes, sposendes”.

-ens- become, get (from FENSI - become): estens(es) jova (yuna),  jovens(es) -to become younger, 

formens = to form oneself, (like in Esperanto - igx- refleksiva sufikso qa sirva po netransitivendes le 

verboy transitiva.)

ens ko ne-verba finado:

”ens" kutime apera ko verba finado, men ye lo maxaba O-finado, A-finado ho E-finado: xarpenso = “le ago xarpens”, xarpensa = “rilata kal ago xarpens, xarpensanta”, sidenso = “le ago sidens”, sidense = “rilate kal ago sidens, sidensante”, meryenso = “le ago meryens”, meryensa = “rilata kal ago meryens”, unenso =  unio “le ago unens”.

Se ne dikaba «mi lavensi, kumbensi, rasfensi, klenensi», bo ta agoy ne eva automate, pe se sela, 

yel homino ne resta pasiva dau to; se dikeba: mi lava mi, kumba mi, rasfa mi, klena mi. Or: Mi mim 

lava, mi mim klena.

meryens: -get married, plibunens- betrens - sem betres - improve oneself 

(to make clearer that a verb is intransitive)

——————————————————

In Atlango mu montra ke verbo esta intransitiva pe unto di ”SEM” men ante le verbo. 

(in Esperanto - igx- qome refleksiva sufikso qa sirva po krees del verboy transitiva - netransitiva.)

Esemploy: mi sem lava (mi lava mi), mi sem meryena, mi sem meryana !

——————————————————

sufiksoy verbezzay:


-ab- (pabi -can)- estabe (ke)- may be,- to paba estes ke... -it may be that…I can do it - Mi fendaba to. 

-am- (ami -to love, to like very much) I like to walk - mi promenama, I love to eat - mi edama.

-arb - make decision to... (from: arbi) I decided to do it - Mi fendarbis to. They 

decided to eat it. - Lu edarbis to. She decided to study fiziko - Li studarbis fiziko. She decide to go 

there. - Li v-arba tren.

-ax- poxa, maxa: barbaxa (with beard)  truvaxa, solaxa, sabaxa plajo (sabyosa)

-eb- (debes -must) - Tu spekteba to -You must watch it.

-ez- 1. (da le verbo dEZes -want - men toje dal verbo tendezes ) -mi v-eza ten. (Mi vant-eza ten) - I 

want  to go there. Mi dankezu ka tu - I would like to thank to you.  

        2. -ez- also as: tendency - tendEZo, disposition: kunprineza, kapeza -understanding, dikeza, 

        plukedika -talkative

-ib- (tribes- should, need)  Ne maxes (Desmaxes) algo nezzesa. Mi triba helpo = helpiba.

      I need help. Ye to mu ne loqiba. We do not need to talk about it.

-ob - (mobes - move ) - make a movement with. Make a gesture with. 

Briefly shut the eyes - Palpebrobi, kepobes = kepyeses - to nod by head , manobes - make a movement

 by hand. Manobes po (ka) - to reach with one ́s hand.   

-obl- ( obli - oblige, should, ought) -Mi fendobla to - I should do it.  

-------------------------------------------------------

Afiksoy propondata: P:

Ge- (to get) gebrifes - to get a letter, gekepalgines - to get a headache, geinfes - to get an info

- envi   to go towards something. Go to sleep - dormenves. (P: sometimes as intention:  + enves)

ful- 1. amount. Es: handful of money - FULmano di mon(e)o, fulbrasoy di floroy, 

fulpokso di moneo, fulmaro di amo, fulfuresto di problem(at)oy, fulkepo di ideoy.

ful- 2. amount.  (satiated, to the full)  fulfil - fulfendes, plentumi, qi tu fuligis? Mi-s fuldormita.

prum-  (prumbes) to try, Hi prumfenda to - He is trying to do it. (Anke ne prumfendes to!)

vyol- violently, very intensively. violbatres = vambatres, violkorses = korsodes

-(e)klang- sound of, resound, howl: mahineklango, gateklango (mewing), vyenteklango -wailing of

 the wind 

vam- to start action suddenly, also ironically. (vames -to start, burst with, into. VAM!)

vama - What a ruckus, tumult! Qezza vamo! (Prime amo - posem vamo.)

Pur-  (purmes) permit, allow, purmeso, PURfendes ka mi to. Purprezentes mi. (Dar ka mi 

prezentens. - myself - Dar ka mi sem prezentes.)


———————————————————————————


-iz-  organIZo - organization, to organize something (izes).  laboristizo - workers 

organization,  cooperative- kooperaktizo

-izm - (-alizmo) denotes a system, doctrine or belief: katolik-izmo = Catholicism; real-

izmo = realism. 

-aryat- institution, organisation, (ofizzo, kontoro) secretariat - sekret-aryato, 

komisaryato


P: -ifik- or -if- (to produce, to fabricate) martel-if(ik)-isto = hammer maker

or: -if(ik)-(to produce) - Es: flores , florens = flor-if-es, to bleed - sangifes (sangum-es)


-ublo - furniture (mublo) skritublo, bukublo, dormublo, klenublo - garde-robo


-umento  from: dokumento - a proof document. Identumento. Sanumento. Purmesumento. 

kofumento, xopumento,  pasumento, entrumento, naskumento (naskakto) 


-------------------------------------------------------

pore- (something to be done, that must be done) porefendoy, payable- porepago (a) (fendEBADoy)

pare- (to parry - parees) paresolo -parasol (solombrelo), parepyuvo = ombrelo (umbrella) 

porte- ( partial container) portevoco -spokesman,  porteovo (ovuyo) - egg cup  (porte-cindro)-ash-

tray,  porte-noto,  porte-moneto (porte-mono)

-------------------------------------------------------

Le verbo ESTES:

To be - estes. Mi esta - Mi-s - I am.

"Qi estes ho ne estes? (n-estes) To-s le qeso." -To be or not to be? That is the question.”

"Qi es ho ne es?  Tezzol qeso."

Esta “is/am/are” is often contracted to -s  but only in the present tense.

Se purmesa formoy korta: (me solme i estantezzo) -s

Mi-s felica. I´m lucky. (In Atlango we use "-" to replace missing letters in contractions. )

Mu-s kontenta -We´re glad.

Lu ne-rika - Lu n-esta rika.   They´re not rich 

(Est)es = to be, ALSO: ES! = be!


------------------------------------------------------------------

It would be interesting to use -s after nouns in more advanced Atlango  

or even after adjectives:

 (In poetry?) My car is very big.  Ma auto-s molte grana. Or: Ma auto mlote grana-s.

 ------------------------------------------------------------------

 I korta sentenzzoy se dikaba:

To-s kavelo - It`s a horse. To-s mi,  lo-s mi - It`s me.

Tro-s domo, qa-s (ki-s) le plu skalta. -That is a house which is the highest. 

Qi tu-s foma? or Qi-s tu foma? (edeza?) -Are you hungry? 


Retorical questions:

Qo-s? Qo lo-s? - What’s up? 

Qe-s? Qe lo-s? What is the situation? How things are?  Qe-s ko tu? = Qe lo-s ko tu? Qe tu-s?

Qi-s? Qi lo-s? Is there…?

Qi-s to tu?  = Qi to-s tu? Is it you?

Le verbo MAXES: (POXES)

Maxes - to have. Maxes is often contracted to -x in the present tense. (-x from a word: to have - maxes 

and to possess - poxes.)

Mi-x to - I have it. Mi ne-x to - I have not it.

Verb-ordo:

Il kezo qem alga neklarezzoy aperabu, se unta prel verbo le vorteto (montre- indikativa): to ho 

(impersonal):  lo ”it" (Po konstates alga fato - situdo ) 

Esemploy:

To lokta un misteria homino i tra domo - ho: Lo lokta un misteria homino i tra domo. 

It was sunny yesterday - Timpe lo esti solarr. (sole)

Talking about distance:

"How far is it to London? It's 100 kilometers." - Qe longe lo-s ka Londono? Lo-s 100 kilometroy.

Mu paba untes le helpoverbo LO  impersonal "there": Lo esta (Lo-s)

Talking that something exists in a particular place:

Esemploy:

Lo esto ( Lo-s) molta trafiko i ta urbo tompe (tomorrow). 

Lo estenta toje islo qa (ki) numa le Islo Okesma. 

Lo ne-s pli di lakto pol kafo.

Lo estes!  Es! = Be! Let it be!

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 

Le verbo Vantes = Ves: - to go  

We use its shorter forms: ves, vi, va, vo, ves! (go!) 

Instead of: vantanta - vanta, vante, vinta, vonta  etp.

Even: enves - to go to, instead of: envantes

Renves - go back. Come back! - Renvyen!

Mi vEZa - I want to go

Mi vEBa - I must go

Mi VA vantes (ves) - I am going to go…

Mi vARBa - I take decision to go…

Mi vIBa - I need to go…   and so on.

den-v-es - to go out

in-v-es - to go in = entri

faren-v-es - go away

zorves, zorvantes (vaudes) - wade

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 


Pe transitiva ye netransitiva verbivoy.

Tu untaba le sufikso PRI- or: -end- ho -ens-  

You can use the suffix PRI-, -end- or -ens- 

( Pri+, -end- (causative) to make a verb transitive. 

The word SEM or: -ens- (become, get) to make a verb 

intransitive.) 

Me tu untaba to konfe le konteksto! 

But you can also use it with the context!


                 In Atlango verb transitivity (PRI-) is also flexible and contextual. 


Verbs may be used as transitive or intransitive, if the meaning in that sentence is unequivocal. 

(An intransitive verb does not have an object. You can use it without having to add any more 

words to the sentence. A transitive verb must have an object.

Mi mobis foren,  ho: mi mobis foren le vehilyo

Also: (to make it clearer) Mi mobensis (mi mobis mi, mi sem mobis) ho: mi mobendis foren le 

vehilyo. Or: Mi primobis foren le vehilyo.

Le aqo kokti ( the water was boiling) or: (I boiled some water) = mi koktis pokter aqo. Mi prikoktis 

pokter aqo.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 

Formoy partisipa:

Partisipoy aktiva (aktivo)  finensa pa -inta, anta, onta

vedinta -having seen

vedanta - seeing

vedonta - about to see

amanta - loving

amanto - one who is loving

ATENTES!

1. Notes, ke kol finado - o, le partisipo kutime beskrita un persono prikarakterita pel ago dil partisipo.   

Notice that with the noun ending, the participle usually describes a person characterised by the 

action of the participle.

2. Mu paba untes zal formo: vedante - le formoy pli korta:  ved-e or: ved-em !

Esemplo: Do not allow your teen to drive while eating, drinking or talking on a cell phone.

Ne purmes ka tua S-anya autes (edante - edem) ed-e, (drinkante - drinkem) drink-e ho (parolante - 

parolem) parol-e il fonijo.

(pokte-S-anya,  es-anya -, desto-anya ... teen years old)


-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

Partisipoy pasiva:

Le partisipoy pasiva (finita-s) fineba pa: -ita, ata, ota

vedita -seen

vedata -being seen, amato - a loved one

vedota - about to be seen , fendota laboro -Work that will be done

amato - one who is loved


 Esemploy:

Trovinte pomo, hi tom edis.- Finding (having found) an apple, he ate it. 

Mi esta trovinto dil pomo.

Ma amata. Le amata mina. (Ma amo) - My love.

Pagonte hi vis (vantis) – He left before paying. 

Partisipoy pasiva (Pasivo) (Passive voice) i aktiva modo finita-s pe: -ita-s, ata-s, ota-s (uta-s) 

Atlango estis lernita pe studantoy- Atlango lernita-s pe studantoy. Atlango lernita-s pe studantoy.

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Se paba untes tojel (jel) formo: + est = Atlango lernestis pe studantoy, Atlango lernesta pe studantoy.


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Konparelativoy:

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(PLUKE - too much - plukemolte, pluke)

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PLU,  makse, (maksemume) - most

(le) plu Es:  (le)  Plu bela 


PLi - more  +

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    ------- PLO - more or less  -EGALE ( plomolta) ----------

----------------------

PLe- less    


PLA 

least, minim(e) (minimume),  (le) pla Es:  (le)  pla bela 

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PLAKE - too little 

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molte rapide -very fast,  pli rapide -faster, (le)plu rapide -the fastest

(Se paba untes: makse rapida ho rapida maksimume)

ple rapida -slower. pla rapida -slowest. (Se toje untaba: (le) minime rapida)

pli qe, pli da -more than (pli molte, qe, da)

Pli bela da hi - Pli bela sobre hi - Pli bela qe hi = More beautiful than he.

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PLONGE(m) -  further  (in Esperanto:  plu)  

Po esemplo: ne plonge = ne pli longem - no longer

plonges - plonge restes i alga stenso: le turpa meteo (klimo) plonga.

plongENDa - Plonge fendes - Hi priplongi le laborando. (pridaures, kontines)      

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THE...... THE..... - QE...... TE..... the more the better - qe pli molte, te pli bune 

Also correct: Ya plu molte, DO(KE) betre.

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Week days - Dyemoy dil zemango (viko): 

Monday -       Lundo , on Monday - Lundyem, Lunde

Tuesday -       Mardo, Mardyem

Wednesday -  Sredo, Sredyem

Thursday -     Jodo, Jodyem

Friday -          Frado, Fradyem

Saturday -      Sabdo, Sabdyem

Sunday -        Soldo, Soldyem

weekend - vikenjo, P: vikfinemo. So-dyemoy (Sabd-Sol-dyemoy)

Lo-s lundo tampe - tampo -today (adyem)

Lo esti soldo timpe - timpo -yesterday (idyem)

Lo esto mardo tompe -tomorrow (odyem)

Le artiklivo LE untatas po indikes le dyemo (le jorno) dil monato. (monato = month)

Mi sem naskis al zema di Aprilo. Tampe lo-s le qina di Marto

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In Atlango there are reduplicated forms which increase the intensity and also its expressiveness.

Poresemple:

molmolte, volvolte = plenplenta, finfine

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Lektante ye konparelante le seqa tekstoy Tu paba simple renkunes ke Atlango esta le lango 

skaltagrade koncisa ye eufonia.

Le konpareloy:


Esperanto (1889)

Multaj el ĉiuj tiuj junaj kaj maljunaj idealistoj, kiuj aliĝis al Esperanto jam dum ĝiaj unuaj jaroj kaj 

esperis ĝian tujan enkondukon en ĉiujn lernejojn, baldaŭ estis seniluziigitaj.

ATLANGO (2019)

Molta de ca le idealistoy jova ye olda, qay prikanis ka Esperanto yu dau sa primanyoy ye esperi sa 

bliksa indukto i ca skoloy, kortem fensis disapondita.

Interlingua (1951)

Multos de omne le idealistas juvene e vetere, qui adhereva a Esperanto jam durante su prime annos e 

sperava su introduction immediate in omne scholas, tosto esseva disillusionate.

In Swedish

Många av alla de unga och gamla idealister, som anslöt sig till Esperanto redan under dess första år 

och hoppades på dess omedelbara införande i alla skolor, blev snart besvikna.

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Esperanto   Prenu ĉiujn tiujn kiujn vi volos kaj lasu ĉiujn tiujn kiuj ne plaĉos al vi.

Atlango       Prin ta cay, qam tu deza ye las ta cay qam tu ne pyasa.

Ido               Prenez ti omna, quin vu volos, e lasez ti omna, qui ne plezos a vu.

English       Take all those, which you want, and leave all those, which you don't like.

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Esperanto:  Ĉu ŝi ĉiam ruĝiĝas ĉe ĉio?  (tongue twister)

Atlango:     Qi li cem rujensa a co?

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Esperanto:  La malbela majlunulino mallaute malfermis la pordon al sia kelo kaj malrapide    malsupreniris la stuparon.

Atlango: Le turpa oldeno pyane abris le pordo ka sa kelo ye lenke dolenvis le stupero. 

Ido:         La leda oldino silence apertis la pordo a sua kelero e lente decensis l´eskalero.

English:  The ugly old woman quietly opened the door to her basement and slowly descended the stairs.

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Suplementa tekstoy i ANGLA,  ATLANGO,  ESPERANTO,  IDO, OCCIDENTAL,  NOVIAL,

  LATINO SINE FLEXIONE  ti  INTERLINGUA:

ENGLISH

The idea of a world literature, which Herder and Goethe conceived essentialy from the point of view of art, has now gained even greater importance from the point of view of science. For, of the things that mankind possesses in common, nothing is so truly universal and international as science. Now al communication and propogation of science uses the means supplied by language, and so the internationality of science irresistably demands the internationality of language. If we consider that today numerous scientific works, particularly textbooks, are translated into twelve or more foreign languages, then we understand what an immense quantity of labour could be saved, if everywhere on the globe books could be as generaly understood as, for example, musical notes or tables of logarithms.

ATLANGO

Le ideo ti letraturo mondall, qam Herder ye Goethe konseptis cefe del vedopunto dil arto, getis tyem del vedopunto dil xento anke pli grana importo. Bo del kosadoy, qay le hominero poxa komune, no-s te vyere universall ye internasiall qe le xento. Men ca komunikando ye propagando dil xento unta moyo dil lango ye do internasiezzo dil xento nerezisteble postila internasiezzo dil lango. Ya mu konsideros, ke tampe molter xenta verkoy, spesye lernobukoy, translangatas i duso ho pli di alya langoy, do mu kapos, qer grana qantero di laboro sparitabus, ya bukoy ceymonde kapatabu te generale qe esemple muziknotoy ho logaritma tabeloy.

ESPERANTO (The accented letter is followed by an x in this text.)

La ideo pri mondliteraturo, kiun Herder kaj Goethe konceptis cxefe el la vidpunkto de la arto, akiris nun el la vidpunkto de la scienco multe pli gravan signifon. Cxar el la komunaj posedajxoj de la homaro, neniu estas tiel vere gxenerala kaj internacia kiel la scienco. Sed cxiu komunikado kaj disvastigado de la scienco uzas la helpilon de la lingvo kaj tial la internacieco de la scienco nerezisteble postulas la internaciecon de la lingvo. Se ni konsideras, ke nuntempe kelkaj sciencaj verkoj, precipe lernolibroj, estas tradukitaj en dek du au pli da fremdaj lingvoj, tiam ni komprenas, kiom granda kvanto da laboro povus esti sxparata, se libroj cxie en la mondo povus esti tiel gxenerale komprenataj kiel ekzemple la muziknotoj aux logaritmaj tabeloj.  

IDO

La ideo pri mondo-literaturo, quan Herder e Goethe konceptis esence del vidpunto dil arto, ganis nun del vidpunto dil cienco mem plu granda importo. Nam del kozi, quin la homaro posedas komune, nula es tam vere universala ed internaciona kam la cienco. Or, omna komunikado e propogado dil cienco uzas la moyeno dil linguo, do la internacioneso dil cienco postulas nerezisteble la internacioneso dil linguo. Se ni konsideras, ke cadie sat multa ciencala verki, specale lernolibri, tradukesas aden dekedu o plu multa stranjera lingui, ni komprenas, qua enorma quanteso de laboro povus sparesar, se libri omnaloke sur la terglobo povus komprenesar tam generale, kam exemple muzikal noti o logaritmala tabeli.

OCCIDENTAL

Li idé pri mund-literature, quel Herder e Goethe hat conceptet esentialmen ex li vidpunctu del arte, ha nu ganat ancor mult plu grand importantie ex li vidpunctu del scientie. Nam de omni comun possedages del homanité niun es tam vermen general e international, quam scientie. me omni comunication e transmediation del scientie usa li medie del lingue. Do li internationalità del scientie ínresistibilmen postula li internationalità del lingue. Si noi considera, que hodie pluri sciential ovres, specialmen libres de aprension, trova se traductet in decidu o plu foren lingues, tande noi comprende quel immens quantità de labor on vell economisar, si on vell posser comprender libres partú sur li glob sam generalmen quam por exemples notes e tabelles de logaritmes.

NOVIAL

Li idee pri monde-literature, kel Herder e Goethe koncepted esentialim fro li vidpunctu del arte, ha nun ganat mem multim plu grand importanteso fro li vidpunctu del scientie. Den ek li coses kel li homaro posese comunim, nuli es tam verim general e international kam li scientie. Or omni comunico e mediatione del scientie usa li moyene del lingue, dunke li internationaleso del scientie demanda nonresistablim li internationaleso del lingue. Si nus considera ke disdi pluri sciential verkes, particularim lernolibres, es traductet en dekdu e plu multi stranjeri lingues, tand nus comprenda qui imensi quanteso de laboro povud bli sparat, si libres povud omnilok sur li globe bli comprendat tam generalim kam exemplim musical notes o tabeles de logaritmes.

LATINO SINE FLEXIONE (INTERLINGUA)

Idea de literatura mundiale, que Herder et Goethe habe intellecto præcipue ex puncto de visu de arte, habe hodie acquisito, ex puncto de visu de scientia, sensu etiam majore. Nam, de commune possesiones de genere humano, nihil es tam generale et internationale quam scientia. Sed omne communicatione et propogatione de scientia ute auxilio de lingua, et ita internationalitate de scientia postula in modo irresistibile internationalitate de lingua. Si nos considera, que hodie plure opere scientifico, in particulare tractatus, es translato in duodecim vel plus lingua extero, tunc nos cognosce quale immane mole de labore pote es præservato, si libros, ubicumque in terra, pote es æqualiter intellecto in generale, sicut per exemplo notas musicale aut tabulas de logarithmos.

INTERLINGUA / IALA

Le idea de literatura mundial que Herder e Goethe concipeva essentialmente ex li puncto de vista del arte, ha nunc ganate ancora multo plus grande importantia ex li puncto de vista del scientia. Nam de omne commun possessiones del humanitate necun es tam vermente general e international quam le scientia. Sed omne communication e propagation del scientia usa le medio del lingua. Tunc le internationalitate del scientia irresistibilemente postula le internationalitate del lingua. Si nos considera, que hodie plure obras scientific, specialmente libros de insenio, se trova traducite in dece-duo o plus linguas estranie tunc nos comprende qual immense quantitate de labor on economisarea, si on poterea tanto generalmente comprender libros ubicumque apud le globo como assi notas musical o tabulas de logarithmos.

 

Ne olves informes  conoy tua amikoy pe ta sayto!

Qono lerno Atlango, ta aprasos ta lango! 

Mi invita Tu po fendes linkoy ka ta sayto Atlanga.

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Kamboy:

(Versio kol kamboy:ADY,PADI,Igi,max-i,pro qo,anke,bau-,bay-,LI-TONO,bres!Bre-,drem,xi-6,-r - va, ki - zam au!-eym ki, ti- zam - ki, zam revo-sogno,toje, zam vido - vuaro,visto, duem, volto. dodi -od-,dunke, exemplo,ji,ept,-ind-i,-ec.ki pri,pyovi,dau,daur-i,lokt-i,naubo,za padi= pabi,kosado, za ady =ado,ak-i = get,ge,sonto, sfenti, vuero, fuego, lazza, kfenke, yeno, agi, andi,vit-i,pri - za xe, primera, oklo, peyore, plando, kloko, malga,algino, rovi,rekfesi, valejo,-ej, pren, ploy, vasta, frenze, ren-, varti, lenke, bordo, yel-i, gelba, geti, albo, albusko, arb-i, xe - pe. pa ,perisi, paxi, syem, suenti,gi, snovo, fau- fel- sueloy, zem, pelmo, sorina, mankfo, piro, fliko, pueno, gria, hal-, korilati, ri, tira, steri, do, dari, cepa, 6-seu, koso, kutimo Ku- velti, kulbi, avoydi, num, retre, kepo, kapi, re, viaho, ki, naudi, gemi, lengi, kia aperi, jasi, zolvi, sti, pretindi, -ind-, saja, stensi, lokfi, eventi, zendi, dusto, -ero,aryo, des+i, nu-, ve! varda, verio, tempudo, nau, nul-, numo, aryum-i ko, auest+es, au, kf-,numbro, ye, pe -ed, ti +es)spedes,zzi,prumbes, +ub, milo, +uel+, vedes, draumo, pres, ju, od, edes, uska, ind, ploke dres, pres freke, Q pronounce: KF,ibl  ute, -eft, volto = exo

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