gramatiko



GRAMATIKO ATLANGA.

(25.VIII.2018)


(Versio kol kamboy:ADY,PADI,Igi,max-i,pro qo,anke,bau-,bay-,LI-TONO,bres!Bre-,drem,xi-6,-r - va, ki - zam au!-eym ki, ti- zam - ki, zam revo-sogno,toje, zam vido - vuaro,visto, duem, volto. dodi -od-,dunke, exemplo,ji,ept,-ind-i,-ec.ki pri,pyovi,dau,daur-i,lokt-i,naubo,za padi= pabi,kosado, za ady =ado,ak-i = get,ge,sonto, sfenti, vuero, fuego, lazza, kfenke, yeno, agi, andi,vit-i,pri - za xe, primera, oklo, peyore, plando, kloko, malga,algino, rovi,rekfesi, valejo,-ej, pren, ploy, vasta, frenze, ren-, varti, lenke, bordo, yel-i, gelba, geti, albo, albusko, arb-i, xe - pe. pa ,perisi, paxi, syem, suenti,gi, snovo, fau- fel- sueloy, zem, pelmo, sorina, mankfo, piro, fliko, pueno, gria, hal-, korilati, ri, tira, steri, do, dari, cepa, 6-seu, koso, kutimo Ku- velti, kulbi, avoydi, num, retre, kepo, kapi, re, viaho, ki, naudi, gemi, lengi, kia aperi, jasi, zolvi, sti, pretindi, -ind-, saja, stensi, lokfi, eventi, zendi, dusto, -ero,aryo, des+i, nu-, ve! varda, verio, tempudo, nau, nul-, numo, aryum-i ko, auesti, au)


Gramatiko di Atlango esta molte simpla:

Pronunso i Atlango:

VOWELS. The vowels of the alphabet are pronounced as follows:

a as in English: far.  e as in fiancé, like a in fate.  i as in machineo as in tollforu as in ruderural.

CONSONANTS. The consonants  bdfhklmnptvw, are pronounced as in English, and the 

remaining as follows:

c like ch in much.

g like g in go

as in  German and Scotch ch, Spanish j, Irish gh, Polish ch 

j like in French and in English: z in azure,  s in visual.  OR: j like in English  jar. (dj)

( dj like English J (John)-  if needed)

q as kw  like question. We use q or Q only for Atlanga korilativoy and in qesti - to ask or qesto - question

y like y in yesbeyond.

r is slightly trilled or rolled. (like in Spanish, Italian, Polish, Russian.)

s like s in seebasis.

x like sh in shine, ch in machine. (I Atlango:  exemplo, xauti- shout)

w like English w 

zz like ts in pizza, tsetse, tsar

DIPHTHONGS.

Diphthongs are combinations of two vowels uttered as a single sound, by one breath-impulse. 

Their pronunciation is as follows:

ay like ai in aisleey like ei in veiney in theyoy like oi in coinoy in boyuy like ui in ruinu(e)y in gluey.

eu like ayw in wayward, or like é(h)oo pronounced together.  au like ou in out 


Le alfabeto Atlanga konsista de 27 literoy. 

I Atlango ne estenta spesya literoy ko supersignoy qe to-s i Esperanto. 

 

Numoy: versio 1. a bo co do (djo) e fo go ho i jo ko lo mo no o po qo ro so to u vo wo xo yo zo zzo

2.  a be ce de (dje) e fe ge he i je ka  el(e) em(e) en(e) o pe qo er(e) es(e) te u ve ew(e) xe ye ze zze 

 

Such a forms like -ia, -io, are pronounced as iya, iyo. (Fransio, Polonio, Germanio.)  

(The forms eu, au -(ne-utra, a-uto, a-utoro) can be also pronounced as: ew, aw (newtra, awto, awtoro))

Stress falls most often on the second-last syllable. Le aksento oftisme fala suren le  prefina silabo. 

Po exemplo: AtlAngo, capElo (-in english: hat), lAngo -(in english: language) dOmoy

 (houses), fEmoy (women).

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ATENTO: Also such a words as:  pOkter, Algem, dAurem, (etc. - e te pren). 

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There are words with stress on the last syllable, which are ended by -all and even by -arr

Atento: le vorto finita pa -all, -arr esta somtempe adyektivo ed adverbivo!-ALL,-ARR(of, relating to)

Por exemplo: totya/e -totyall,  norma/e -normall (usual, usually)

syela/e -syelarr,  sola/e- solarr,  milita/e -militarr

ATENTO: Ta formo (-all)(-arr) untata-s  (esta untata)  solme pos subestansivoy e spesye 

(spesyall) po stilistiko ed i poezio.

This special form is used sparingly and for stilistics only! Always AFTER a noun or a verb.

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I poezio se paba unti (untaba) le apostrofo za le (zal) subestansiva finado -o

Dom ́ , heym ́ , sol ́  (za, zam+,   instead)

Pro eufonio (euklango e fluventa pronunso) - vortoy i Atlango makse frekfe finensa pe vokaloy. 

A E I O U o pa ”semivokaloy": M N R L W Y .

Toje lo esta (lo-s) vortoy ko finadoy: S, T, K, X. 

Po exemplo: ok - 8 ed interjektivoy (interjections) klik! -click! xx! hax! -hush! hup! -hop!

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Subestansivo (substantive) maxa (has) le finado - O,  suaro - evening (in French: soir) islo -in 

English: island, terdo -in English: earth, ( in German: erde, in Spanish: tierra.) numo -name, viro, 

homano - man (a male person), femo, homeno -woman, hermeno - sister, frato (hermano) - brother,  

pueno, joveno - girl, koro - heart, albo - tree,  intendo (endo) - purpose,  arbo - decision. (arb-i)


Plurivo (the plurals) maxa le finado - OY , (som(e) qe i Esperanto - ”oj”) hominoy (popolo) - 

people, piratoy - pirates,  klaudoy - clouds, garsoy -boys

Adyektivo  maxa le finado - A  bona - good, bela - (in French: belle) beautiful, rap(id)a - fast, 

intresa, intreseda -interesting, nuva -new (in French: nouveau)

(Koncerne kal adyektivoy dusilaba finensanta pa M N R L W Y- (po exemplo: grana - big,

mala -bad) - se paba unti le formoy pli korta: gran, mal, bon. (I ta formo eufoniall ta vortoy esta 

somtempe adyektivoy e adverbivoy!)

Adjectives  must not agree with nouns and they very seldom, when needed, take the plural 

ending -y.

Atento: Le Verday -The Greens (Le Grinay)


Adverbivo maxa le finado -E.  Fare, diste -far away, lenke -slowly, prokse -near, fore- in front of

(Also le finadoy korilativa:  -em, -en, -er, -ey)

Infinitivo: 

Infinitivo maxa le finado -i.  To mark the infinitive of a verb we use the preposition - ti. 

(ti) esti (short form - economy of expression!) :  -s) -to be, 

(ti) maxi (short form:  -x (from: ti maXi and ti poXi) - to have, to possess. 

v(ant)i - to go (ti VI)

fedi  (suffix:  -ED-) - to make  (Esp: ig)

fensi (suffix:  -ENS-) - to make oneself (Esp: igx)

kuni -to know,  

dari -(suffix:  -AR-) give (also:  permission, to allow someone to do something)

debi (suffix:  -EB-)- must 

pabi (suffix:  -AB-) -can 

dezi (suffix:  -EZ-) -want 

tribi (suffix:  -IB-) - need

aki (acquire) (suffix:  -AK-) - receive, get

sombli -to seem, 

prini -to take, 

vuari - to see

skanti (singi) -to sing, 

skriti - to write, 

Ti - Preposition used to mark the infinitive of a verb: 

Mi vuari le joveno ti korsi. = Mi vuari, kel joveno korsi. =  Mi vuari le joveno korsanta – I see the girl 

running. (P: Mi vuari le joveno korsem.)

Le konvyeno sombla (ti) esti yu finita.

Lo-s facile kritiki, me lo-s zore (ti) fedi. – It is easy to criticize, but it is hard to work. 

Il situdo qem (ya) infinitivo koma sentenzo mu deba presekfedi le infinitivo pal vortulo: ”ti”!)

Ti skanti lo-s ne facile - It is not easy to sing.

Ti trefabis (pabi trefis) tu - to-s ma suonto. (suonto, dyemdrimo - daydream)

Lo-s ne facile ( ti ) skanti.

Mi dezi (ti) yelis to - I wanted to eat it. (Mi tom yeleza)

Mi konsilus ka tu ti lekti ta buko.

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A , ad - as indefinit preposition. (Like ”je” and ”cxe” in Esperanto.) a le = al,  au+


Glaso di vino to-s glaso plenta a (di) vino.  


He took her by the hand - Hi prinis li a le mano. (al mano OR: aumane.)

————

Le matro fedis le rumo a purga. ( Le matro purgedis le rumo.)

Se numa li a Rozo. 

Conoy titolis hi a  profesoro, me posem hi montrensis a (este, ti esti) simpla instruisto. 

Se konsideris ta difekto a (qezze) (este) totye signolesa. Hayses le rumo a varma!

The house by the river - Le domo al flumo. Le domo aufluma.

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Pe (about)  QANTERO:

how  many? Qer,  Qer di pauno tu deza? = Qe grana qanterom di pauno tu 

deza?)  Di nutrifo mu maxa (mu-x) tere (qer)(ki) mu triba. ( Lom nutrifo mu-x.)

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TEMPOY

Lom tempoy (tempivoy) e modoy (modivoy) mu krea pa presekfedo le verbo pa persona 

pronumo ho korilativa vortetoy some pa advando (adizzo) dil finado tempall ho modall:

Paxintemo (Estintemo, Timpo)- I.  Mi vanti, (mi vi) I went, mu skriti -we wrote, lu dormi- they sleep

Estantemo (Tampo)- A.  Tu dikta -you are saying, li lekta -she is reading

Futuro  (Estontemo, Tompo)- O.  Tono (ge) vuaro - hi, she, it will see

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LE FORMO PERFEKTA:

The perfect aspect (solme ya to-s nezzesa!) formita-s (toje il infinitivo) 

pel finadoy: 

-I+S , -O+S, -U+S

(But only for Paxintemo, Futuro and Konda modo!)

                                   Also sudden and momentary action!

Po exemplo: mi skritiS - I have (already) written, (Mi (yu) skritis) I had written. Mi

 vuariS hi - I have seen him. Mi fin(ed)os to - I will have finished it. Lu komis ti korsi -

They have (already) started to run. Hi yu morti - or: Hi mortis. – He has died. (But: Hi 

morti = hi esti mortanta. – He was dying.)

Qono lerno Atlango, ta aprasos ta lango.

1. Atento: Il modo imperativa (-ES) le -S esta cem (always) sul fino.

2. Atento: le finadoy -iS, oS, uS (pli forta signalo di perfekta modo) esta untata

 solme ya to nezzesa! Zam le finado -S se untaba solme votreto YU.

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Imperativo -ES

Mu fedes to! -Lets (we) do it ! Ves!- go! Vyen! - come! Vames! (Vam! Ve!-Let ́s go!

For!  Foren! - Forwards!   Far! Faren! - Away!

E yal eufonia situdo purmesa - mu untaba korta, unasilaba imperativoy:

Dar! (dares!) -  Give!  Mir! - Look! Prin! (Get!) - Get!  Max! -Have! Var! ( vartes!) -Wait!  Ves! (Van!) 

- Go! ( vantes!) E toje,(je): Diktes! - Dik! -Say!  Es! Estes! -Be! Ens!-Become! Bles! -Bless! (Es 

blesta!)  Pyens! (pyenses! - Think!) Stop! -Stop! Korses! Kors! -Run! Kom! -Begin! Yel! - Eat!

Plis farves - Please, go away.  (Plis) Porfavore, ne ves - Please, do not go. 

Also:  Estens, Ens! -Become! (with a suffix -ens- (make yourself, himself))

Qezze le imperativo se paba unti jel (toje le) vorteto: LAS. (Lases!)  

Let him go! - Las hi va! Hi ves! Hi van!

Las mu feda to! -Lets (we) do it ! Las mu va! - go!) Las to-s… Las lo-s - Let it be...

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You can also use: Ke solme… (if only) or:  Mey… (may)

May you be happy - Ke solme tu-s felica.    or:   Mey tu-s felica!

May it be!- Ke solme! Mey! Oha-la! (in Spanish: ojalá!

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Subyuntiva formo - subjunctive form:

Mi prega, ke hi vyenes. – I ask that he comes.

Mi dezira ke tu estos  re sana (sanida). – I wish you to get healthy again. 

Mi bringis (kanportis)le buko, po ke tom (tu) lektes.– I brought the book for you to read.

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In indirect speech Atlango uses the imperative after verbs such as: want, wish, order, advise, tell

 etc. where English uses the infinitive.

Mi deza ke tu ves ka Fransio  -    I want you to go to France.

Mi ordesis ke hi ves hejmen    -    I ordered him to go home.

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Konda modo (kondivo)

The simple conditional is formed by: - U   Lu bildu (konstruktu) - They would construct

The past conditional is formed by: - US   Lu bildus (konstruktus)  - They would have constructed

( If he would run, we would catch him - Ya hi korsu(s), mu him keptu(s).)

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Persona pronumoy. 

MI- I 

TU- you  (also plural form)  

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TO, TADO - it ,   (This - TA) - objects, things

TONO - objects and persons, TENO - female person, TANO -masculine person.

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(LO -  dummy subject.)

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GI - she, he  - TONO (teno e tano)  (person gender neutral) 

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HI - he 

LI - she 

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MU -we 

TU -  or  ZZU - you (zzu - only in plural)

LU - they (TONOY and TADOY)

Refleksivo:

SE - English equivalent for”one” and oneself

1. Nepersona  (e refleksiva pronumo):

SE  ( UNO - one, (they, some people, also: UNAY))

Se nem kuna - One never knows. Matine unay esta dormeza.Vespere se-s lazza. 

You don´t have to go - Se ne veba. (Se ne deba v(ant)i), That is not known - Se ne kuna to. 

Such houses are not built any more - Se ne pren bilda tezza domoy, bildadoy.

Mi audi klaco, ke…  = I heard a rumor that…

As refleksiva pronaun is translated: herself, himself, itself, themselves and oneself.

Lu kumbi se - Lu sem kumbi  = They brushed their hair. 

Hi lavi le enfo e postem se. =  He washed the child and then himself.

2. Nepersona pronumo: LO ( -impersonal "it", dummy subject, grammatical subject, fact, 

situation.

 The pronoun LO:

1. Lo refers to an indeterminate object - to a fact, action or situation rather than to a thing: 

Prin(es) ta pomo, mi dezira lo, Take this apple, I desire it (= I desire you to do so )

2. Lo as an impersonal "it" with adjectives: it's cold - Lo-s kolde (frige)

3. Lo as an impersonal "it"( dummy subject) with verbs:

Lo pyova - it rains - it is raining. (You can also say: se pyova.)

Lo-s le kfina -It ́s five o ́clock

Lo esto Serdo tompe - It will be Wednesday tomorrow.


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For euphonious purposes or to avoid misunderstandings between pronouns we can add - o -. 

For  example: mi, li, hi to = omi, oli, ohi, oto - e - mu, lu = omu, olu -we, - e - se = ose - self.

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sel(a) - self. po exemplo: Tu sel lektes - Lek to sel! Read (for) yourself. Mi sel tom fedis -I have 

made it myself. (mi fedis to sel) selstansa - independent (sindependa) Tyem le royo sel vuarezi 

to.

Nepersona pronumo: se (situation, state - when there is no visible subject )

Po exemplo: Se dikta - They speak. Algono (uno) pyensa - se pyensa - One thinks

Se diktes qom se deza. - Let people say what they like . (Las se dikta qom se deza)

Tu trompa tu sel!

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Le difinita artiklivo - LE

Le is used before any noun which refers to something or someone that has been mentioned earlier.

Use LE where you could just as well use TA or TRA. 

Untes LE qey tu simple egalbone untada TA ho TRA.

People for whom use of the article offers difficulties (e.g. speakers of Chinese, Russian, Polish,) may at first elect not to use it at all.

le urbo - the town, 

le Verday -The Greens ( le Grinay)

ley Smith, ley Jackson

Article LE are usually dropped in headlines. Exemple: ( ”NUVA KLENOY DIL ROYANO.”)

I pronunso, literaturo e poezio se unta formoy pli korta:

dil o di-l = di le, del o de-l = de le, kal -ka le,  kil -ki le, po - pol, sul - su le, il = i le, 

sobrel - sobre le, prol - pro le, konfe le - konfel… etp.

di le popolo- dil popol ́, ( dil popol ́) de le domo- del dom ́, (ka le skolo - kal skol ́

Ho simple ne untes ta artiklivo!   di popol ́, de dom ́


Nedifinita artiklivo ne estenta i Atlango me Tu paba unti (untaba) : un, uno 


TABELO DI PRONUMOY ADYEKTIVA E POXIVA:

Di qa? Qia? - Whose - KIA

Le poxa emfatikivoy  (+ NA)

ma- my                                    Emfatika:  le … mina

mua -our                                  Emfatika:  le … muna

tua - your, yours                      Emfatika:  le  … tuna

zzua - yours                             Emfatika:  le  … zzuna

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ga (gender neutral)                 Emfatika:  le  … gina


tona- her, his, its - tada          Emfatika:  le  … tona, tada)

Also: tia (t-ia)                          Emfatika:  le  … tia)                    

(persons, animals and objects)

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ha- his                                        Emfatika:  le  … hina

la- her                                         Emfatika:  le  … lina

lua -(their)                                  Emfatika:  le  … luna

(to -this, it)  tia, tada, di to, di ta - its)

Refleksiva pronumo:  

sa - one`s                                    Emfatika:  le  … sena

Adyektiva pronumoy:

(Lom le adyektiva pronumoy: mua, tua, lua - mu paba pronunsi ki: "mwa, twa, lwa”! Me prefe  i 

poezio) 

Atento: Le formo lingvall (le … -a) untatas spareze e po stilistiko.

This special form in Atlango is used sparingly and for stilistics only!

Po exemplo:

Hi ne intresi pel saudatoy sena

Qia to-s domo? ( Also: Qia-s domo?)

To-s le domo mina

Mi fate ne kuna kia (qia) to-s kulpo.

Qono jola pe algia desfelico, tono ne restos sin puno.

To-s alga innuvado, pe kia akzzepto se deba binkonsili.

(In Esperanto: Ĝi estas ia ennovaĵopri kies akceptado oni devas konsiliĝi.)

Deklino di subestansivoy:

Genetivo: di - le lango di le (dil) totya hominero - the language of the whole humanity.

Ex: Le syelo esta di blua koloro. (Le syelo esta bluaya, ho maxa blua koloro.)

Dativo: ka  (kan+) le purto - to the harbour

Lo-s ti tezza dativa formoy korta: ka mi - min, ka tu- tun, ka hi- hin, etc.

Ex: Nu, dares to ka mi! - Nu, do´ to min! - Well now, give it to me!

Sing it for me - Skantes min to. (Skantes to po mi)


Akusativo: - m, lom

Mi vuara le purto, - me: (inverted sentence structure: - mi le purtom vuara - or: Lom le purto mi vuara. 

Autom mi kofis- or: Lom auto mi kofis. A car bought I. Mi ama tu - I love you me : Tum mi ama. 

(Lom Tu mi ama)

Hi skrita intreseda nuveloy, - me: (inverted sentence structure: - Lom intreseda nuveloy hi skrita.

I alga okazo (plurivo)   se untaba akuzativa partikulo - lom

Yago lom drakoy - hunting for drakes. (Yago kontre drakoy. Yago a drakoy.)

Direction:

You can use: le korilativa vortuleto -EN to show MOTION TOWARDS: 

Let’s go to the house - Mu ves (vantes) kal domo. OR: Mu ves domEN.  

ATENTO: (In that case do not use ” le ”!) 

Put it outside the house -Pondes to eksten (eksteren) (Pon ́ to eksten!) 

Put it there - Pon to tren.

Vokativo: (He!) (man! - he, homino! )

Vokativoy Atlanga. Interjections:

Well!  well now! - Ve! Vam!

ahoy!   - He-hoy! He!

alas! alack!  - He-las!  He-lak! - Vanide! Grete, Greteje, Triste.

hello!  - He-lo! Saluto! He! Hay, Hey!

WoW! - He-la!  Wau!

Lo-s makse importa pronumoy:

1. Le pronumoy untita za subestansivoy: - o  (Pos lu lo frekte sekfa verbo )

PERSONO:

qono?-who? which, (also relative for person) algono -someone, tono -this person, trono-that person, 

cono -everybody. nono -nobody

Some  (indeterminate) - Nalga, Nalgono. 

Pluriva formo:

qonoy?  tonoy, tronoy, conoy, algonoy, nonoy

NEPERSONO:

qo? -what? (also relative for things) algo - something, to -this, tro -that, co -all, no - nothing 

Qo to esta? (Qo-s to?)What is this? Qo eventis? -What has happened?  Qo eventos? -What will 

happen? 

To eventos. - It will happen.

Pluriva formo:

qoy?  toy, troy, coy, algoy, noy (nadoy)

We can also use more eufonious and emphatic form:  qado? -what a thing? tado - that thing, 

nado - no thing,  cado - everything, all

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Atento: Le prenumo Lo (dummy subject) presekfa verboy i renverta ordino:

There is a mistery island. Lo-s alga misterioyosa islo. (L-esta alga…)

2. Le pronumoy adyektiva e distributiva: -a

qa? -who, which, which one? (also relative for both person and things) alga -some, any, certain, ta -

this one  tra -that one, ca - each, every (distributive), na -nothing

Pluriva formo:

qay?  tay, tray, cay, algay, nay

Qa evento? -What a event? Ta evento - This event. Qa to esta? (Qa to-s?, Qa-s to? -Which is it?

Conoy (collectively) paroli e ca (distributively) i sa lango. - Everyone spoke and each in his own

 language. Or: Conoy paroli e cono i sa lango.

Demonstrative: to, tono, ta, tra (this, that, this one)

It is possible to use as a relative pronoun WHICH =  ki (also for plural form)

EX: Mi diktis kal homoy (qay) ki paroli.

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Qalitezzo:

Le qalitezza pronumoy adyektiva: -ezza

qezza?-what kind? algezza-some kind of, tezza-such a, cezza -every kind of,  in this way - te, ta-

mode, in such a way: tezze, tezzamode.


Atlanga korilativoy (pe situdo e tempo):


MODO (modeEo) manner - e  

QE? -how , ALGE - samehow, TE - in this way, TRE - in that way, CE - in every way, NE - no, in no

 way ( ne = neu!, Oh ne!)

LOKEYO place - ey  

QEY? - where? ALGEY - somewhere, TEY - here, TREY - there, CEY- everywhere, NEY - nowhere.

TEMPO  time - em    

QEM? - When? ALGEM -anytime, TEM - now (tyem), TREM - then,  do, CEM -always, NEM - never.

QANTERO quantity, group,- er  

QER? - How much? ALGER - some quantity,  TER - so many,  TRER ---, CER - the whole quantity, 

NER - none.

DIREKSO direction - en  

QEN? - Where to? ALGEN - somewhere (to), TEN - in this direction, TREN- in that direction, CEN - 

in all directions, NEN - in no direction.

-----------------------------------------------------------

KAUSO cause - Pro +  

Pro qo?  (Qakause?) Why?  Pro algo (Algakause)- for some reason, Pro to (Takause) - so, for this, Pro 

tro (Trakause) - for that reason, Pro co (Cakause) - for every reason, Pro no (Nakause) - for no reason.

-----------------------------------------------------------

Possesion (poxo, maxo)  - ia

QIA? - whose? Kia - whose, ALGIA - someone’s,  TIA - this one’s,  TRIA - that one’s, CIA - 

everyone’s,  NIA - nobody’s.

Qalga -whichever , qalgo, qalgado -whatever, qalgono - whoever, qalgem -whatever time, qalgia -

anyone’s,  ce -(ca-mode, in every way, however, nevertheless

Qaya? - In which color, nuance, aspect? Naya- colorless, Caya - moltekolora. ( cayensi - to become 

in multicolors?)

Syelarkaya - in rainbows colors

QANYe? - In which year? Canye - every year. Tranye - last year. (paxintanye)

Atento:

Solme le korilativa vorteto ”ey”(loko) funka qezze sindependa sufikso e prinaba le finado -o

 Exemple: kokfeyo - kitchen

Le korilativa vorteto ”em” esta le sufikso "hala" e do (doke) lo deba esti prezentita il 

vortero!

Exemple: estontemo - future (futuro), adolescence - jovemo. Me ne:  problemo, femo.


(Pli grana tabelo dil korilativoy esta sul advepagino KORILATIVOY.) 


-------------------------------------------------------

Rilata pronumo: 

1. P: Rilata pronumo universall:  KI

ki - as, who, which, that, like, just. (qom, qono, qa(m), qe, te, qezze, tezze)

Exemploy:

Le televistadoro, ki (qam)  mi kofis, esta molte bona.      The TV set, which I bought, is very good.   
Ves ka hi ki-s (qa-s) trey, e qestes pol voyo.      Go to him who is over there, and ask for the way.

Li pinti ki (qe) vuera pintisto.  She painted like a real painter.
Yohano (Djon) nauda ki (qezze) fixo.   John swims like a fish.

Adamo esta te (ki) grana ki Nilso.  Adam is as big as Nils.
Mi-x duvolte plier mono ki Oskaro.  I have twice as much money as Oskar.

Hi labori ki instruisto.  He worked, as a teacher.

Ki programisto hi ne suksigis.               As a programmer he had no success.

Kil elektro bresis, lu ne koktabi kafo.   As the power went, they could not cook coffee.

Ki (solme) mu entris le dezerto, le akfo finis.    Just as we walked into the desert, the water went out.
Kil pludo finis, lo kompyovis.               Just as the game ended, it started raining.

Ki mi denvendi, le mobijo fonis.                 As I was leaving, the phone rang.

Le rezulto n-esti te mala qe (ki) mi esperi. The results were not as bad as I had expected.

Ki (Qezze) mi lengi!           As I've longed!
Ki (Qezze) li mangi tu!      As she has missed you!
Ki kortem ki eble. (Te kortem qe eble)   As soon as possible. (Swedish: Så snart som möjligt)

Mi helpezi kal pueno kia ( di qa) ombrelo kleptita-s.  I wanted to help the girl whose umbrella got stolen.

Le enfoy kia kristnaska giftoy rompita-s fensis trista.  The children whose Christmas presents got broken became sad.


2. Korilativa rilata pronumo:  QA -which, which one, who (qono)

Qa homino esta makse prokse(y)? Which man is nearest ?

Le homino, qa (qono, ki) trey stara - That man, who is standing there.

Qa libro esta intreseda? - Which one (of these) books is interesting?

Ta, qa-x (ki-x) molte piktadoy. -This one, which has many pictures. 

She´s the person which I love - Li-s le persono qam mi ama. Or: Li-s le persono lom qa mi ama.

Li-s le persono ki mi ama.


-----------------

do, doke, dokem -so, then

Tem , qem - Tem, do…(dokem) / Tem, qe.../

tyem - now

un, una, uno -(alga, algono) -one, certain

Otra vortoy importa:

Tezzo! Tezze! - voila! (Vo-la!) Vamo!  Tezzo-s… Tey-s...

to... to... Alterne alga situdo ed otra, alga evento ed otra: to marxante, to korsante hi vyenis kal

 domo.

Qi ? - interrogative particle ( in Esperanto: cxu?)

yes, ye -yes

ne, (neu) - no, not  (in no way - na-mode) 

nekfe,   ne… nekfe…  - nor,  neither … nor  (Mi ne skritis ka hi nekfe skritendi. Mi ne fuma nekfe 

unta alkoholo.

Nekfe timpe nekfe tampe mi rezzeptis (akis) letero). 

ni - (ne totye, ne totyagrade) not completely, not wholly

te - so (in this way- ta-mode )

e(d) - and, (kay - adva e pli forta ”e”, more like ”too”, "e toje")

toje (je) - also (je le = jel)

ka, kan+  to (ka le = kal)

inse -  into, ( insel = inse le)

pe, (sobre) - about

po, (po ke) , por- , in order to (po le = pol)

pa,  par- by

ri, rin+ relating to

da, dan+  from  

si, sin+ -without

aste -till, until (aste le = astel, astem, astey)

de, den+ - out of, (de le = del)

i , in-  in (i le = il)

a, au+ - at, by

a (ad)  (as indef.prepn. like in Esperanto - je) To-s plenta ad akfo.           

kortem - soon 

pre, antey - before, in front of (fronte di)

pre, antem - before in time 

jem, prem pax, yustem  - just a moment ago

pos, pose, posem, pos tem (in time) -after (desfronte di, posey)  bakem - back in time

enke- still, yet

re, denuve (danuve) - again, once again, (enkevolte, re volte, renvolte)  de komo - denkome. 

(Ex: To re-s tey. - It is here again.)

daurem, dau, interem, inem - during, while  

————————

tempo - time

tampe, P: adyem - today

timpe,  P: idyem - yesterday

tompe, P: odyem - tomorrow

————————

Seasons of the year:

spring - springo, springEMo 

summer - verno, vernEMo

autumn, fall - falyo, falyEMo 

winter - vintro, vintrEMo

————————

ya - if   

yu - already  

yo, fate - indeed - (verie, porverie, verifate) 

yuste - just

yustem - just now, (akuratem, yustyem = yuste tyem)

prekortem, antekortem, kortem pas  (a moment ago) - antem

yustey - just here

inte, inter+,  between

ke  -for, that

solme -only

me -but

ambe- both

otra - another

zora, zore   difficult

zor(e) -(ni) konpenge  -  barely 

pro  -because of, as

bo, pro to ke, po to ke, takause ke, -  because

om - by (movement) ev-i - avoid), Verb: evi, omedi

ho (hod) -or

ko, kon+, - with, together (kone ko) Verb:  konedi, konensi

dis(e) -dispersal, separation. Verb:  disedi, disensi

sub(e) -under    Verb:  subedi, subensi

ve, ver+ -through,  Verb:  veredi, verensi

ploy -too much  ( super-)  Verb:  ployedi

trans(e) - behind, to the other side   Verb:  transedi, transensi, transenvi

eks(t)ey - outside, go outside - vi eksen, eks-en-v-i 

iney, insey - inside   Verb:  in(s)edi, in(s)ensi

su, sur+, (su le = sul) - on    Verb:  suredi, surensi

toje, je -also, (kay, kaye = and also, not to mention - e toje)

molte, mol - a lot of, much,  mol = very,   very much = mol molte,  molte

pokte - a few (a small number of)  

mikre - (desmolte) (adv.) - little  Verb:  mikredi, mikrensi

plus, pluse ( otraparte, sobre to, pluse to, adve to) - moreover, except, apart from

pokta -some,  - pokte, pokto di...

prefe - rather

za, zame, zam-, -instead  Za riposi, hi labori. Za vi(s) heymen, li vi(s) kafeyen. 

P: xley -in different places

raptem - suddenly, (raptyem), (raptey - very near)

rape, raptem -  suddenly

blikse ,  tuy -  immediately, Bliks! Tuy!

bliksey - very near (in place) -  tuy pri

far - away

within - iney

qezze, qe (kaze) - as , as if,  

kaze, P: inde - as, as if   Verb:  kazedi, kazensi. PretINDi (pretend to be - estindi)

doke - however.  (To-s verio, me… ), Lo pyova -  me doke mu ves. 

kfen, kfenke  - although

di -(also follows expressions of quantity, weight, mesure.) pli di akfo - more water, plenta di vino

de, den+ from, also: of, fedita de, kreita de ( krugo de metalo)  also: krugo metall, krugo denmetala,

 Verb:  denedi, denensi, denvi

da, dan+  from  Verb:  danedi, danensi, danvi

————————

as (being) KI, qezze,  (as an expert she knows = qezze (ki ) spertisto li kuna. 

Hi qezze (ki) prezidento eleksis hi po sekretaryono. Hi trakti hi a (ki) venkinto. 

Or:  qezze - as (being) to be, in the character, quality of.  Ki exemplo - Qezze exemplo - as being an 

example.

              Mi, ki prezidento, eleksis hi (po)a (ho este) Viceprezidento. 

             

-------------------

Prol eufonio mu paba unti  (untaba) "e" sul fino di tezza vortoy. Po eks: pax - paxe, pos - pose 


Pokta importa verb(iv)oy:

answer (reply) respond-i, (resp-i), repl-i

appear - aperi

appear (look) - aspekti

appear as (seem) - sombli. 

arrive - arivi,  (come) vyeni

ask (question) - qest-i

be -esti,  -s

born be- naski, (to give a birth -borti)

bring  - bringi, adveporti, kanporti, feci

build  - bildi, konstrukti.

buy  - kofi, xopi

concern  (relate to) - koncerni,  rilati pe, ka,   ri

congratulate - grati, kongrati 

continue - daur (em)-i, kontin-i 

cook - kokfi

desire deziri 

disappear - desaperi 

drink - drinki

eat  -yeli, -yelo (breakfest = matinyelo, dinner = dyemyelo, supper = suaryelo)

fly - flugi

give - dari -   suffix: -AR- (ti dari signaloy = ti signal-AR-i )

greet - saluti

intend (going to) - intendi , -END- (I am going to watch this film - Mi mirenda ta filmo.)

kiss - besi

know (be acquainted with) - kuni, kunesi

know (by learning) - kunodi

lead (guide) - gvidi

let - las, lases (lasi)

like - pyasi

listen - skuti

love - ami

look at - miri

make (something) fedi,  -ED-

need potrib-i, tribi -IB-. Po exemplo: Ne dankibe = Lo ne-s (po)tribo a danki.

be necessary - esti nezzesa

pray (communicate with God) - pregvi.

prefer - prefi.

prepare - prepari

pretend - pretindi - IND - Hi ne sti porvuere kolera - hi solme kolerindi. He wasn´t really angry - 

  he was only pretending. 

propose - propondi

put (on something) - pondi, plasi

save (from danger) - salvi

save (on computer) - sav-i , seyvi )

say -dikti (diktis)

search for - xerki

smile - smili

guard - gardi

happen - eventi -evento

have - maxi (to possess - poxi, -x)

hear - audi

help - helpi, aydi

hold - holdi, kontyeni, inmaxi

hope - esperi

joke - joki

keep - tyeni, holdi

stand, be - stari, stansi

take - prini

talk (able to speak a language) langi, paroli

talk (conversation)  konverzi, lokfi, interlokfi, interparoli

tell (say) - dikti

tell a story - kenti

thank - danki

try -  prubi, PRU-

use - unti

want - dezi -EZ-

watch on - spekti

work - labori

understand -  kapi, kunprini

------------------------------------------------------- 

 

NUMERALOY

0 -nol(o) (zero) 1 un(o)    2 du    3 trin    4 kfar    5 kfin    6 seu   7 zem    8 ok    9 nau  10 dyes(o) 

 ( dyes-e ) or ( dyeS  -S- )

11 dyes-e -un (UNSO (-S- )), 12 dyes-e -du (DUSO), 13 dyes-e-trin (TRINSO), 14 dyes-e-kfar

(KFARSO), 15 dyes-e-kfin (KFINSO) 16 dyes-e-seu (SEUSO), 17 dyes-e-zem (ZEMSO), 

18 dyes-e-ok (OKSO), 19 dyes-e-nau (NAUSO)  

pokte-S-anya,  es-anya -, dyes-e-anya ... teen years old

dozen = DUSO

 (e-dyes) or (-T-) 

duto -20, trinto -30, kfarto -40 kfinto, -50 seuto -60, zemto -70, okto - 80 (okedyeso) nauto -90

or:

duedyes -20, trinedyes -30, kfaredyes -40, kfinedyes -50, seudyes -60, zemdyes -70, okedyes - 

80,  naudyes -90

cento - 100,  centemo = zerzeremo (..00 centanyo)

tauso (tausento) - 1000, 

miliongo -1 000 000  

miliardo- 1 000 000 000

1947 - tauso naucento kfarto zem. (un nau kfar zem, nauso-kfarto zem))

1968 - tauso naucento seuto ok (dyes-e-nin seutook) (nauSo seuToOk) 

2002 - dutauso du

2013 - dutauso trinsa (duto trins(o))

2017 - dutauso zemso

2018 - dutauso oks(o) 

As in English, numbers may be given out by naming the digits only: 

2018 - du nul(zero) un ok

1300 - un trin zer-zero

Adjektivoy numerall:

-esm- or -a  first - unesma, una (prayma), the 8th -okesma, the 80th -le oktesma ho le okedyesesma, 

the12th -le dusa, le dusesma

Multiple: -opl-

duople -double , kfarople -fourfold

Collective numeral: -ale, -all

unale, unall -one by one, kfaralo -quartet, qezze-l dualo = duale = duall -  i grupo di du.

duale, duall,  by twos, in pairs. (parel-mode) tausale, taus(ent)all, by thousands,  kfarale, kfarall, by 

fours.

okaledi, to form into groups of eight.

KFINALO (kfino) di musikantoy pludi il salongo. 

Fraction: 

-parto -(e)frakso ho -f- 

dufrakso (halo) -half, 1/2,(dufo)

trinfrakso 1/3 (trinfo) , kfarefrakso 1/4 (kfarfo), seufrakso - sixth 1/6 (seufo), 1/10 dyesefrakso

 = dyesfo, centefrakso 1/100 (centofo), 3/4 trin-kfarfo, 5/6 kfin-seufo

Numbers can take an adverbial ending:

une-(prime, P: primere) firstly; in the first place - unall

due- secondly; in the second place - duall

trine, kfare, kfine, seue, zeme, oke, naue, dyese...

OR:

Collective numeral - PO - at the rate of, so many at a time. 

Po un(e), po due, po trine, po kfare, po kfine, po seue, pozeme, po oke, po nine, po dyese.

lu drinki po un glaso -they drank one glass each 

mi lekti le buko i ca dyemo po kfar ( kfare) paginoy. 

Le drapo kosti po 2 dolaroy pormetre.

Lu rezzeptis po kfin pomoy. = Lu rezzeptis 5 pomoy po ca. = Ca de lu rezzeptis (getis) 5 pomoy.

1. Mu vehi po kfinto (kfinedyes) kilometroy ca dyemo.

3. Mu vehi kfinto di kliometroy ca-dyeme.

Aritmetika kalkoloy:

Adizzo: (Addition) 12 + 10 = 22 dyeso-du plus (P: adve) dyeso  esta (ekfa)  duto-du 

Subetraho: (subtraction) 21 - 3 = 18 duto-un minus  trin esta (ekfa) dyeso-ok

Moltopledo: (voltedo)  (multiplication) 3 x 8 = 24 trin ople ok,  ho trin moltopledata 

pe ok, esta (ekfa) duto-kfar 

Divando: (division) 69 : 3 = 23 seuto-nau su (divita pa, ve(r) ) trin esta (ekfa, egala) duto-trin

a2 = a kfadra (kfadrata) o a2 = a i duesma potenzo


PE TEMPO E KLOKO:

Ti qalemi, ti qalkloki - to measure time

Qera kloko tyem esta? Qera kloko? Qer klokemo esta? Qer-s kloko?

What time is it? 

Lo-s le trina. Lo-s le trinesma. Lo-s (le) trin-kloko  (P:  Lo-s (le) trinklo)

A qera kloko lo ariva le trayno? Qerkloke?

Ma trayno ariva, farva (denparta) al (a le) zema. Or:  al zemesma. Or: al zem. - My train leaves at 

seven. 

06:05 = seu klokoy (e) kfin (minutoy), 06:25 = seu klokoy duto kfin

07:30 = zem klokoy e dufo. (e hal(o)

01:15 = un kloko e kfarfo. ( Kfinso minutoy pos le una. Kfarfo pos le una.)

02:45 = du klokoy e trin kfarfoy. Kfarfo kal trina. 

For ”half past” use: e dufo or e halo.

4 o´clock and a half (hour) - kfar klokoy e dufo.

Le okesma antemeridye) - Eight a.m.

Le okesma posmeridye    - Eight p. m.

Po esprivi  dauro, se unta:  da ...  aste: Mi dormi dal unesma astel seu(esma). Mi dormi dau(rem) kfin 

klokoy. 

"Le" untatas cem po indiki horo, kloko:  Tyem lo-s le kfara. Le trayno farva (farenvos) dyes minutoy 

antem le oka. 

P: Be on time - ti tempIGi

qalemijo = krono-metro

—————————————————————————————————————————————————————————

Volte

volto time (in counting); occasion (repetition); turn (in series); singlavolte, cavolte: every time (that), all the time, whenever; moltavolte: many times, often (when), repeatedly; qermolte: how many times; poktavolte: sometimes; lo-s ma volto: it is my turn; mi vuara li du-volte il monato: I see her twice a month. 

volto - occasion

volte - once

voltem - sometimes

algavolte(m) - sometimes

cavolte -at all times, always

enkevolte - once more

cavolte qem - when ever

duvolte - twice

re volto, renvolte - once again

adevolte

—————————————————————————————————————————————————————————

AFIKSOY:

Prefiksoy:

Qal- means investigation, exploration, valuation, testing, study, checking, to ask about.

 For example: weigh - qal-pezi.(qalpezezzi - pezmenzi) qalmenzi- to measure something. 

Qallongi - measure the length. Qalstupidi - to investigate stupidity- ti investigvi stupidezzo.  

Qalverii - investigate the truth.  Qalmondi - esplori mondo. Qalatlangi - study about Atlango

adve - in addition. adizze,  advi, adizzi, advedari - to add 

bau - (bauaga = from: blagan = bedlam, chaos, disorder)  baufedi - to make a mess

be- ( betrakt-i) As prefix with nouns and verbs. To treat or supply with, provide with.

 - besemini - sow (a field) Used to mean that someone  or something is treated in a particular way. 

To coronate - be-krun-i ( like in Dutch: bekroning) bewail - bepyori, bepyensi - reflect, 

bekolor-i = kolored-i

bin- reciprocally (bilateral) repruce: binami - to love each other, binevi - to avoid each other 

bre-  break, cease - bresi- bres!  Hi brediktis (bresis) sa storyo -She interrupted speaking her story. 

Breves! = Halt!  Bres! - Stop! Stope! Bres! - Break! Mu breplandis - We have broken our plans.

ci, cirke-,  - about (around) cirke, cirkey, cirke-miri, cirkevi, civanti, civi

da, dan- - from  danvi -  to leave,

de, den-, out of.  denvi - to go out (desentri)

des(e)-  opposite: deskovri- discover, desavantajo -disavantage            

dis(e)  - shows separation. disen-vi - to go in different directions, disvoyo -road-fork

eu- (also: bon-) nice, positive, pleasant, cosy -  eulekta (eulektebla), cosy- euheyma, 

euaspekta - good-looking

far-  (away!)  means removing, disappearing, distance, spoiling. farvi - to go away, to leave, 

fardormi - to spoil time by sleeping, faresto - absence

frekte - frequently,  frekteviziti - frequently visit. (sometimes) Watch: -andi.

fuy - moraly bad, shamefull - fuyvorto - a bad word

ge- used with the plural to indicate both sexes together - mother and father - (ge)parentoy 

(genitoroy) ge- ”both sexes” - gelerneyo (school) go to bed with sy. - geyasi 

gran - intensive or emphatic (for verbs): granpregi -beseech, granaprasi- appreciate, appraise

in -  invi, invazo = inrush

inse, insen-  - (entre) into,  vi inse - insenvi- to go into (entri inse), vehi insel urbo. (vehi urben)

kan-  kanvi -to approach, kanvyeni = to arrive. (arivi)

kom- to start something - hi komdiktis - he has already started speaking. Hi kompludis - He has 

already started to play. 

fel-  mis-, mistaken, ill, wrong, incorrectly or negating. (mal-, eror-) felaudi, felmunti

nul  - (Solme ko subestansivoy. Instead of long forms: sin...edi, sin...ensi)) Take off, to deprive -  

nulkepi algono (sinkepedi) - decapitate - behead,  nulakfi (sinakfedi), take off 

obstacles - nulstakli, nultrubi, nulzori -plifaciledi,  nuli - to get rid of

par - to achieve something through - parforti - to violate, to force

pren-  further, still, longer in time. Holdi (rentyeni) -retain, (Retain your ticket, please. (Plis) 

Porfavore, prenholdes Tua bilyeto. (Holdes tua bilyeto pren.) Mi prenamo tu astel morto.

sti- kinship by a second marriage:   sti-matro, sti-patro, sti-filo (halfilo)

hal- (half) marks also relative by marriage. (in-law- halparenta), halfrato 

halsurelo - sister in low, halfilo - son-in-law, haldotro -daughter-in-low.

zor- barely, difficult, zorvi -  move with effort, hardly, barely (ni-).

 (Atento: not soft = harda, not easy, difficult = zora, konzore = desfacile

----------------------------------

Sufiksoy:

-ac- disparagement: domaco - hovel, skritaci -to scrawl, popolaco - mob, t-on-ac-o -wretch (tono -

 this person)

-ad- thing, something made of...: nuvado -a novelty, vaxado -beef ), sokrado -a sweet.

-ag- act, behave - konagi - cooperate, reagi -(reakti) -react, agando - action(s)

-ayoaya  - color, color nuance or aspect di… 

zebraya pyelo,  tigraya pyelo, pyelayo - nuance of skin, marayo -sea color, flamaya - in color of

 flames , brick-coloured - brikaya, Qaya? - In which color, nuance? Naya- colorless, (sinaya) Caya - 

moltaya - moltekolora,  somaya - in the same colour, turpaya - in ugly colours. 

-ala-, -all, -arr it denotes: relating to, appropriate to, pertaining to: roy-o - king -royala -royal, 

naturala

-and-  (agand-i) 1. continual action, process also habitually: - skantando (singando)- singing, lernando 

-learning,  parolando - a speech. 

    2. -andi -   (ande) from time to time, process: - pyorandi - cry, weep sometimes. 

( Hi vizitandi mu. - He visited us a great deal.  Hi ande viziti.  - He continually paid visits. Hi andis ti viziti - he kept on visiting.)

-ary- (-aryo) person who take care of something, occupied with something, who like 

something: sekretaryo -sekretary, vaxaryo -kowboy (kawboyo), komisaryo (eno) -commissar, 

farmer - farmaryo (farmisto) - aryum-i - to deal with

-er- collective, group: hominero -mankind, albero (furesto) -wood, dyentero - (all your) teeth

-estr- chief, head: urbestro  = (town) mayor; postestro = postmaster; navyestro  = (ship's) captain. 

-et - diminutive: -hometo -little man , dormeti -to doze (also used for to make an intimate form)

P: -ev - to avoid, evi,  veh-ev-i, tref-ev-i, kontakt-evi - to avoid a contact - ti evi kontakto 

-ey- place allotted to or characterized by. kokfeyo -kitchen, kafeyo - café, cafeteria,

kameyo (kamrumo) -dining room.

-ery - manufacture or a shop. bakferyo -bakery, kaferyo (kafeyo) -cafeteria, 

(administration) administ-eryo

     - atery- (more industrial and professional, factory.) oservateryo, sanateryo, bakfateryo

-ezz- abstract nouns: (-ness; -ity; -ship; -hood)  belezzo - (byuto) beauty, blankezzo- whiteness

Also: with the meaning: simila:  enfezza konduto = enfosimila konduto, argila terdo (terdo de argilo) - 

argilezza terdo.

-iny - the suffix -iny- (for males and for females) make from the root an intimate form. 

(But also -et-)

Yohano - Yohinyo (also Yohaneto) patrinyo– dad, matrinyo– mum,

a shorter forms: p-inyo, m-inyo

frato – brother, herminyo – little brother (frateto, fratinyo, fr-inyo) or little sister (sureleto, 

surelinyo, sur-inyo)

-ist-, -alist- person habitualy occupied with something, proffesional, enthusiastic amateur, adherent. 

polisisto -policeman (or woman), atlangisto -atlangist, laboristo -worker

(After ”i, y” - alist - nasiALISTo, P: nasi-aryo)

-------------------

-on- a person, animal or a thing with personal qualities: fripono -rascal , mentinono -liar, 

syelskrapono - skyscraper. trinmastono - three masted ship       

Also a member - sosi-ono, tim-ono, erono.

 Also a tree: - puarono -pear-tree (puar-albo), pomono -appletree

     -en- famale person /animal also famale member or inhibitant, adherent,  hermeno - (surelo) sister, 

              kaveleno -mare, Europeno

     -an- male person /animal also male member or inhibitant, adherent

             hermano - (frato) brather, Europano, Amerikano, Kristano - Christian

-yeno - wife, meryeno, po exemplo: meryeno di generalo - generalyeno.

-yano - husband, meryano, po exemplo: a husband of a princess - prinsesyano. 

---------------------

-ofono -speaker of a language (Atlangofono, Hispanofono, Germanofono)

-ozo - augmentative: - domozo - a big house, bonoza -excellent, amozo - gran amo - passion 

Also for verbs: flamozi - ablaze

-ozyo - disease - tuberkulozyo, nervozyo 

-izzo - 1. denote inflammation of an organ - (larynx - larinkso) larinksizzo - laryngitis, nervizzo

            2. denote abnormal states or conditions, excesses, tendencies, obsessions. (mania - manio) - 

                komputorizzo, telefonizzo.

-algino - pain - headache- kepalgino, mi algina (a, pro) - I have a pain... 

-trubo  -  symptom of a problem, a trubulence  -  nervotrubo, monetrubo (pekuntrubo), klimotrubo 

-ur- result or product of action, expression: pikturo -drawing, pinturo - painting, nauzuro -

expression of disgust

-yosa -rich in, abundant,   pyov-yosa -rainy. (maxanta, rika a (ko, pa) pyovo)

-----------------------

Instruments:

-ily- tool, vehicle (mobile):  vehilyo -vehicle,  flugilyo - airplane, automobile - automobilyo

-ij- simple tool, instrument, means:  intyenijo - container, yelij(er)o -cutlery, flamijoy- matches

 (alumetoy), P: komputijo - smartphone, fonijo (Ay-fonijo?)


-oro 1. APARATORO  apparatus (like -ilyo, -ijo)  televistoro, komputoro 

2. OPERATORO -oro - doktoro, dansoro, operatoro, animatoro, medyatoro, aviatoro

-atoro - (a thing) (agatoro) factor, agent - denominatoro  

-ataryo - (a person) (agataryo) amataryo, animataryo, medyataryo, aviataryo  


-uy-  bokso, hod otra intyenijo. Container, receptacle, bokso, kapso, doso  (even book) cindruyo 

notuyo -notebook (kayerno) Also: 

-ayno- a holder, sheath for the object described by the root: suord-ayno, pyed-ayno

-ubl- mublo - furniture, skritublo, bukubleto, sidelo - sidublo.

------------

-ument- document (akto) - pasumento, entrumento, naskumento (naskakto) 

-ul- portion, piece of , element, fragment:  akfulo - portion of water (some water) snovulo - a portion 

of snow, terdulo  - a portion of ground

-ikul-  a very small particle of a whole: partikulo, akfikulo -drop of water, snovikulo -snowflake, 

pyovikulo -rain drop,  paunikulo – a crumb of a bread

-ex- rexo, reminder. rexulo,(cetere- konrexe)

-uj- (suja - dirty) reminder in pejorative -  besuja, sujedita pa fango - fanguja

-abl- capability: nemortabla - immortal, an instructive book - instruktabla buko

-ebl- possibility:  eblezzo = ebla, portebla -portable, lektebla -legible

Se pyovebla - It may rain. (se pyovenda) kapeble - of course  

-ifo  material: kreifo, verkifo,  pintifo, pentrifo (paint) brenifo - fuel,  bildifo - building material 

-eska-  alike, pintureska - picturesque  (eski - to be alike )

-eja worthy of: ameja -loveable, fedEJa - worth doing, vuarEJa - worth seeing

-io - names of countries: Fransio -France, Italia, Italio -Italy   

also system or domain: demokracy -demokratio, domain- dominio, dinastio - dinasty, prenzio -press

(-ia  - means also possession = Fransia - of France.)

-yuno- (posono) the descendent of, or a young animal, or a plant.(enfo, posono): gatyuno - kitten, 

hundyuno - puppy. arbYUNo a apling, from a tree.

-inid- (posono) the descendent of, or a young human - royINIDano -prinsano ho prinseno. Karolo - 

Karolposonoy, Karolinidoy = dinastio fondita pr Karolo le Grana. Latininida lingvo, (lango), qa 

davyena de Latino.

-------------------------------------------------------

Halsufiksoy: (Lu deba esti prezentita il ofizzyala vortero.)

ren-  repetition, again or return.  Give it back to me. - Dar mi to ren = Rendares mi to.

ti renvyeni - to come back

-um- no fixed meaning. It changes basic meaning in an undefinite way. It is used to create a word

 somewhow related or around the idea, object.

Plentumi -fulfil, kruzumi - crucify, komuna (common), komunumo, komunio (community)

 (koleksivio); vyento (wind), vyentumijo (a fan), umijo (gadget).

For euphony and to avoid sound clusters especially between y and i it is possible to use suffix -

-um-  or -al-:  -al- nasialisto (nacionalist), teorialisto, historialisto

-oy- 1. a special suffix to protect -if possible- from homonyms.  For example: -  antenna - (ant-

en-o) antenoyo, veranda - verandoyo,  birch - betuloyo, (betulo, betulalbo, betulono)

2. a special suffix to shorten long words: klosetoyo - kl-oyo, WC-o, ”loo".

(There are homonyms in Atlango too, as it is in all languages. For ex: in Esperanto: planeto - 

planet or plan-et-o  - a little plan.  But in this case in Atlango we have: Planeto - planet,  plando - a 

plan. In Atlango it is possible to avoid them also by using the suffix: -oyo) 

However sometimes the homonyms are even needed in literature and for jokes and games of words. 


-em- 1. (tempo) enfemo - childhood, i modernemo -in modern times (modernem), fyestemo - 

holidays, proksem -soon (kortem). ALSO: When we were going - we met him - Qem mu vi 

- mu trefis hi. V-em mu trefis hi. (Vantem mu trefis hi)

-em- 2. time. em-i = to spend a time doing something, to dedicate time to an activity, a process ( 

paxedi tempo - temp-i) ti lektEMi - to spend a time reading.

-eym - aim, (intendo)  Qeymo di ta forsoy, pengoy, strevoy. The purpose of these 

efforts, struggles.  Why? Qeyme? Qende? For health purposes - San(id)eyme

-end-  Intention: ( intendo)I am going to. (even: to try - pru-) - Mi fedenda to.  I am going to read this 

book - Mi lektendta buko.   Mi fedenda to.  (Mi intendi (ti) fedi to. Mi intendi tom fedi.) We are 

going to go to... Mu venda ka...

Also: Pronoun + -s…onta: mi-s keptonta -I am going to catch, mi esti keptonta-I was going to catch.

-er-  Quantity, amount: Your age - Tua anyero. It is 2 cm long - To longera 2 cm.

-------------------------------------------------------

Sufiksoy fedita de verboy:

Atento:  Ca afiksoy di ta tipo se triba unti (se untiba) ko sparezo.

------------------------------------

-ed- 1. causative, (from FEDI - make): - purgedi - clean, ebledi - make possible, kunedi, (to make

 clearer that a verb is transitive) 2. in some (contextual) cases even: to supply with - ex: motivedi, 

ombredi  (beombri) (like in Esperanto - ig- transitiveda sufikso)

3. to treat by something - toksedi -to poison, (betoksi) BUT: to bomb (bebombi)

ed ko ne-verba finado:

”ed" kutime apera ko verba finado, me ti lo maxaba O-finado, A-finado ho E-finado. Ta formoy montra le soma aga signo qel verba formo: xarpedo = “le ago ti xarpedi”, xarpeda = “relata kal ago xarpedi, xarpedanta”, sidedo = “le ago sidedi”, sidede = “rilate kal ago sidedi, sidedante”, meryedo, sposedo = “le ago meryedi”, meryeda = “rilata kal ago meryedi, sposedi”.


-ens- become, get (from FENSI - become): estensi jova (yuna),  jovensi -to become younger, 

formensi= to form oneself, (like in Esperanto - igx- refleksiva sufikso qa serva po netransitivedi le verboy 

transitiva.

Se ne diktaba «mi lavensi, kumbensi, rasfensi, klenensi», bo ta agoy ne eventa automate, pa se sela, el 

homino ne resta pasiva a (pe) to; se dikteba: mi lavi mi, kumbi mi, rasfi mi, kleni mi. 

ens ko ne-verba finado:

”ens" kutime apera ko verba finado, me ti lo maxaba O-finado, A-finado ho E-finado: xarpenso = “le agero xarpensi”, xarpensa = “rilata kal ago xarpensi, xarpensanta”, sidenso = “le ago sidensi”, sidense = “rilate kal ago sidensi, sidensante”, meryenso = “le ago meryensi”, meryensa = “rilata kal ago meryensi”, unenso =  unio “le ago unensi”.

Se ne diktada «mi lavensi, kumbensi, rasfensi, klenensi», bo ta agoy ne eva automate, pe se sela, 

el homino ne resta pasiva dau to; se dikteba: mi lavi mi, kumbi mi, rasfi mi, kleni mi. 

meryensi: -get married, plibonensi - improve oneself (to make clearer that a verb is intransitive)

——————————————————


-am- (ami -to love, to like very much) I like to walk - mi promenama, I love to eat - mi yelama.

-ab- (pabi -can) - estabe (ke)- may be, - to paba esti ke...  -it may be that… I can do it - Mi fedaba to

-ax- poxa, maxa: barbaxa (with beard)  truvaxa, solaxa, zandaxa plajo (zandyosa)

-eb- (debi -must) - Tu spekteba to -You must watch it.

-ez- (da le verbo dezi -want - me toje dal verbo tendezi ) -mi v-eza ten. (Mi vant-eza ten) - I want to 

go there. Mi dankezu ka tu - I would like to thank to you.  

-ez- also as: tendency - tendEZo, disposition: kunprineza, kapeza -understanding, dikteza, 

(inter)lokfeza -talkative

-ib- (tribi- should, need)  Ne maxi (Desmaxi) algo nezzesa. Mi helpiba. -I need help. Pe to 

mu ne lokfiba. We do not need to talk about it.

-iv- 1.grammatical words:  adverbivo, artiklivo le, adyektivo. 

      2. expression, manifestation: esprIVi, Ex: Hi montri deskontento e tristo. Hi deskontentIVi e hi 

tristIVi.  I can see an expression of surprise on your face - Mi vuarada soprinivo su tua viso.


-udo (P: -omyento-esto, estudo) state situdi - to be in a state of…in situation, condition. san-UD-o, 

ord-udo,  trist-udo, tristomyento, meteomyento - tempudo. 

Ma aferoy (bizneso) esta i trubudo (embaresudo). 

My  affairs (business) are in an embarrased state. I am in love - Mi amUDa. I've fallen in love - Mi 

amUDis. (I am in situation, state of being in love) pyensUDi - lost in thought,  pensive.


P: -azz- to dare, bold and daring, audyazzi -I dare say -Mi diktazza, an audacious pland -un 

plandazzo.

  Dare you ask her? - Qi tu pregazza li?  How dare you speak to me like that? 

Qe tu diktazza tamode ka mi ?

P: -arb - make decision to... (from: arbi) I decided to do it - Mi fedarbis to. They 

decided to eat it. - Lu yelarbis to. She decided to study fiziko - Li studarbis fiziko.



-------------------------------------------------------

Afiksoy propondata: P:

-ind- pretend - pretINDi. Hi n-esti porvuere kolera - hi solme kolerindi. He wasn´t really angry - 

 he was only pretending. Do not pretend to be naive - Ne naivindes. Qi mu paba kredindi to? Qi mu 

kredindaba to? Can we pretend to belive this?

- envi   to go towards something. Go to sleep - dormenvi. (Also: intention - endi)

- invi   to go in. Inves! - Come in! (= Entres!) to come into house - Dominvi. Heyminves!

ful- 1. amount. Ex: handful of money - FUL-polmo, fulmano di mon(e)o, fulbrasoy di floroy, 

fulpokso di moneo, fulmaro di amo, fulfuresto di problem(at)oy, fulkepo di ideoy.

ful- 2. amount.  (satiated, to the full)  fulfil - fulfedi, plentumi, qi tu fulyelis? M-s fuldormita.

Pru-  (prubi) to try, Hi prufeda to - He is trying to do it. (Anke ne prufedes to!)

vyol- violently, very intensively.

-(e)klang- sound of, resound, howl: mahineklango, gateklango (mewing), vyenteklango -wailing of

 the wind 

vam- to start action suddenly, also ironically. (vami -to start, burst with, into. VAM!)

vama - What a ruckus, tumult! Qezza vamo!


———————————————————————————

-ig- to manage with something, succeeded with. Something with a positive result.  From: atigi, suksigi. 

Ex: I have been able to get any more information. Mi rezzeptIGis ( akigis) pli molter info. I don´t 

know if I´ll be  able to come. Mi ne kuna qi mi vyenIGos. To achieve success - ti suksIGis. (ti fedgis, 

ti atigis) 

Success- suksigo. Artigo - an artistic  achievement.  Sportigo - an achievement in sport.  Mi prosperis, 

suksigis, tom fedis - mi fedigis to.  I managed to convince him that…  Mi konvinigis hi ke… To-s ma 

grana atigo. Lektigo - Good-read. He is getting better from day to day - Hi estiga betre dyemdyeme.

-obl- (obligi, obli - oblige, should, ought) -Mi fedobla to (fobla)- I should do it.  

-iz-  organIZo - organization, to organize something (izi).  laboristizo - workers organization, 

cooperative- kooperaktizo

-aryat- institution, organisation, (ofizzo, kontoro) secretariat - sekret-aryato, komisaryato

-ob - (mobi - move ) - make a movement with. Make a gesture with. 

Briefly shut the eyes - Palpebrobi, kepobi = kepyesi - to nod by head , manobi - make a movement

 by hand. manobi po (ka) - to reach with one ́s hand.   

-ifiki- (to produce, to fabricate) martel-ifik-isto = hammer maker

or: -UM-(to produce) - ex: flori , florensi = flor-um-i, to bleed - sangumi (sangi)

-izm -(-alizmo) denotes a system, doctrine or belief: katolik-izmo = Catholicism; real-izmo =

 realism. 

-ublo - furniture (mublo) skritublo, bukublo, dormublo, klenublo -garde-robo

-umento  from: dokumento - a proof document. Identumento. Sanumento. Purmesumento. 

paxumento, kofumento, xopumento.

-------------------------------------------------------

pore- (something to be done, that must be done) porefedoy, payable- porepago (a)

pari- (to parry - pari-i) parisolo -parasol (solombrelo), paripyovo = ombrelo (umbrella) 

porte- ( partial container) portevoco -spokesman,  porteovo (ovuyo) - egg cup  (porte-cindro)-ash-

tray,  porte-noto, porte-moneo (porte-mono)

-------------------------------------------------------

Le verbo ESTI:

To be - esti. Mi esta -I am.

"Qi esti ho ne esti? To-s le qesto." -To be or not to be? That is the question."

Esta “is/am/are” is often contracted to (P:)  st-i, st-a, st-o, st-u

or to  -s only in the present tense.

Se purmesa formoy korta: (me solme i estantezzo) -s

Mi sta felica - Mi-s felica. I´m lucky.(In Atlango we use "-" to replace missing letters in contractions. )

Mu-s kontenta -We´re glad.

Lu ne esta rika -  ne sta rika - Lu ne-s rika - They´re not rich 

------------------------------------------------------------------

It would be interesting to use -s after nouns in more advanced Atlango  or even after adjectives:

 (In poetry?) My car is very big.  Ma auto-s molte grana. Or: Ma auto mlote granas.

 ------------------------------------------------------------------

 I korta sentenzoy se diktaba:

To sta kavelo, To-s kavelo - It`s a horse. To-s mi, Lo-s mi -It`s me.

Tro-s domo, qa-s le plo skalta. -That is a house which is the highest. 

Qi tu-s foma? or Qi-s tu foma? (yeleza?) -Are you hungry? 


Retorical questions:

Qo-s? Qo lo-s? - What’s up? 

Qe-s? Qe lo-s? What is the situation? How things are?  Qe-s ko tu? = Qe lo-s ko tu? Qe tu sta?

Qi-s? Qi lo-s? Is there…?

Qi-s tu?  = Qi to-s tu? Is it you?

Le verbo MAXI: (POXI)

Maxi - to have. Maxi is often contracted to -x in the present tense. (-x from a word: to have - maxi and 

to possess - poxi.)

Mi-x to - I have it. Mi ne-x to - I have not it.

Verb-ordo:

Il kezo qem alga neklarezzoy aperabu, se unta pre le verbo, le vorteto (montre- indikativa): to ho 

(impersonal):  lo "it"

(Por konstati alga fato - situdo ) 

Exemploy:

To lokta un misterioyosa homino i tra domo - ho: Lo lokta un misterioyosa homino i tra domo. 

It was sunny yesterday - Timpe lo esti solarr. (sole)

Talking about distance:

"How far is it to London? It's 100 kilometers." - Qe longe lo-s ka Londono? Lo-s 100 kilomeroy.

Mu paba unti le helpoverbo LO  impersonal "there": Lo esta (Lo-s)

Talking that something exists in a particular place:

Exemploy:

Lo esto ( L-esto) molta trafiko i ta urbo tompe (tomorrow). 

Lo eksista toje (kay) islo qa (ki) numensa le Islo Okesma. 

Lo ne-s pli di lakto pol kafo.

Lo estes!  Es! = Be! Let it be!

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 

Le verbo Vanti = Vi: - to go  

We use its shorter forms: vi, va, vo, ves! (go!) 

Instead of: vantanta - vanta, vante, vinta, vonta  etp.

Even: envi - to go to, instead of: envanti

Renvi - go back, Renves! - come back! Revyen!

Mi vEZa - I want to go

Mi vEBa - I must go

Mi vENDa - I am going to go…

Mi vARBa - I take decision to go…

Mi vIBa - I need to go…   and so on.

den-v-i - to go out

in-v-i - to go in

faren-v-i - go away

zorvi, zorvanti (gvadi) - wade

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 

Pe transitiva e netransitiva verbivoy.

Tu paba unti le sufikso -ed- ho -ens- hol vorto: sen ) You can use the suffix -ed- or -ens- or: sen (ka se)

( -ed- (causative) to make a verb transitive. -ens- (become, get) to make a verb intransitive.) 

me tu untaba konfe le konteksto! But you can also use with  the context!

Verb transitivity is also contextual. 

Verbs may be used as transitive or intransitive, if the meaning in that sentence is unequivocal. 

(An intransitive verb does not have an object. You can use it without having to add any more 

words to the sentence. A transitive verb must have an object.

Mi mobis foren ho: mi mobis foren le vehilyo

Also: (to make it clearer) Mi mobensis (mi mobis mi) ho: mi mobedis foren le vehilyo

le akfo kokti ( the water was boiling) ho: (I boiled some water) = mi koktis pokte di akfo. 

Formoy partisipa:

Partisipoy aktiva (aktivo)  finensa pa -inta, anta, onta

vuarinta -having seen

vuaranta - seeing

vuaronta - about to see


Partisipoy pasiva:

Le partisipoy pasiva (finitas) fineba pa: -ita, ata, ota

vuarita -seen

vuarata -being seen, amato - a loved one

vuarota - about to be seen , fedota laboro -Work that will be done

 Exemploy:

Trovinte pomo, hi tom yelis.- Finding (having found) an apple, he ate it. Mi esta trovinto dil 

pomo.

(le) amata mina. - My love.

Pagonte hi vis (vantis) – He left before paying. (Hi eksis, kaminis)

Partisipoy pasiva (Pasivo) (Passive voice) i aktiva modo finitas pa: -itas, atas, otas (utas) 

Se skritaba toje qezze: ( -ita-s, -ata-s, -ota-s)

Atlango estis lernita pa studantoy- Atlango lernitas pa studantoy. Atlango lernita-s pa studantoy.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

Se paba untis toje le (jel) formo: + est = Atlango lernestis pa studantoy, Atlango lernesta pa studantoy.


------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Konparativoy:


most 

makse, (maksemume), (le) plo ex:  (le)  Plo bela 


pli - more  +

----------------------

        pla - more or less  - egale ( plamolta) 

-----------------------

ple- less    


least 

Plu

minim(e) (minimume),  (le) plu ex:  (le)  plu bela 

--------------------------------------------------------------------

(ploy - too much - ploymolte, ploye)

--------------------------------------------------------------------

(ni - too little)

--------------------------------------------------------------------

molte rapide -very fast,  pli rapide -faster, (le)plo rapide -the fastest

(Se paba unti: makse rapida ho rapida maksimume)

ple rapida -slower. pla rapida -slowest. (Se toje untaba: (le) minime rapida)

pli qe, pli da -more than (pli molte, qe, da)

Pli bela qe hi - Pli bela sobre hi - Pli bela da hi = More beautiful than he.

————————————————————————————

pren -  futher, more (in Esperanto:  plu)  

Po exemplo: ne pren longem - no longer

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THE...... THE..... - QE...... TE..... the more the better - qe pli molte, te pli bone 

Also correct: Ya pli molte, DO(KE) betre.

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Week days - Dyemoy dil zemango (viko): 

Monday -       Lundo , on Monday - Lundyem, Lunde

Tuesday -       Mardo, Mardyem

Wednesday -  Sredo, Sredyem

Thursday -     Jodo, Jodyem

Friday -          Frado, Fradyem

Saturday -      Sabdo, Sabdyem

Sunday -        Soldo, Soldyem

weekend - vikenjo, P: vikfinemo. So-dyemoy (Sabd-Sol-dyemoy)

Lo-s lundo tampe - tampo -today (adyem)

Lo esti soldo timpe - timpo -yesterday (idyem)

Lo esto mardo tompe -tomorrow (odyem)

Le artiklivo LE untatas por indiki le dyemo (le jorno) dil monato. (monato = month)

Mi naskis le zema di Aprilo. Tampe lo-s le kfina di Marto

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In Atlango there are reduplicated forms which increase the intensity and also its expressiveness.

Porexemple:

molmolte, volvolte, plenplenta, finfine

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Lektante e konparante le sekfa tekstoy Tu paba simple rekunis ke Atlango esta le lango skaltagrade 

koncisa e eufonia.

Le konparadoy:


Esperanto (1889)

Multaj el ĉiuj tiuj junaj kaj maljunaj idealistoj, kiuj aliĝis al Esperanto jam dum ĝiaj unuaj jaroj kaj esperis ĝian tujan enkondukon en ĉiujn lernejojn, baldaŭ estis seniluziigitaj.

Interlingua (1951)

Multos de omne le idealistas juvene e vetere, qui adhereva a Esperanto jam durante su prime annos e sperava su introduction immediate in omne scholas, tosto esseva disillusionate.

ATLANGO (2018)

Molta de conoy ta idealistoy jova ed olda, ki kanensis ka Esperanto yu dau(rem) tia primanyoy ed esperi tia bliksa indukto i ca skoloy, kortem disapondis.

In Swedish

Många av alla de unga och gamla idealister, som anslöt sig till Esperanto redan under dess första år och hoppades på dess omedelbara införande i alla skolor, blev snart besvikna.

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Esperanto   Prenu ĉiujn tiujn kiujn vi volos kaj lasu ĉiujn tiujn kiuj ne plaĉos al vi.

Atlango       Prin ta cay, ki tu deza e las ta cay ki tu ne pyasa.

Ido               Prenez ti omna, quin vu volos, e lasez ti omna, qui ne plezos a vu.

English       Take all those, which you want, and leave all those, which you don't like.

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Esperanto:  Ĉu ŝi ĉiam ruĝiĝas ĉe ĉio?  (tongue twister)

Atlango:     Qi li cem rujensa a co?

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Suplementa tekstoy i ANGLA,  ATLANGO,  ESPERANTO,  IDO, OCCIDENTAL,  NOVIAL,

  LATINO SINE FLEXIONE  ed  INTERLINGUA:

ENGLISH

The idea of a world literature, which Herder and Goethe conceived essentialy from the point of view of art, has now gained even greater importance from the point of view of science. For, of the things that mankind possesses in common, nothing is so truly universal and international as science. Now al communication and propogation of science uses the means supplied by language, and so the internationality of science irresistably demands the internationality of language. If we consider that today numerous scientific works, particularly textbooks, are translated into twelve or more foreign languages, then we understand what an immense quantity of labour could be saved, if everywhere on the globe books could be as generaly understood as, for example, musical notes or tables of logarithms.

ATLANGO

Le ideo di literaturo mondall, qam (ki) Herder e Goethe konseptis cefe del vuarpunto dil arto, gvanis tyem del vuarpunto dil xenzo anke pli grana importo. Bo del kosoy, kil hominero poxa komune, no-s te verie universall ed internasiall kil xenzo. Me ca komunikando e propagando dil xenzo unta moyo dil lango e do internasiezzo dil xenzo nerezisteble postila internasiezzo dil lango. Ya mu konsideros, ke tampe molta xenza verkoy, spesye lernobukoy, translangatas i duso ho pli di fremda langoy, do mu kapos, qer grana kfantero di laboro sparitabus, ya bukoy ceymonde kapatabu te jenerale ki exemple muziknotoy ho logaritma tabeloy.

ESPERANTO (The accented letter is followed by an x in this text.)

La ideo pri mondliteraturo, kiun Herder kaj Goethe konceptis cxefe el la vidpunkto de la arto, akiris nun el la vidpunkto de la scienco multe pli gravan signifon. Cxar el la komunaj posedajxoj de la homaro, neniu estas tiel vere gxenerala kaj internacia kiel la scienco. Sed cxiu komunikado kaj disvastigado de la scienco uzas la helpilon de la lingvo kaj tial la internacieco de la scienco nerezisteble postulas la internaciecon de la lingvo. Se ni konsideras, ke nuntempe kelkaj sciencaj verkoj, precipe lernolibroj, estas tradukitaj en dek du au pli da fremdaj lingvoj, tiam ni komprenas, kiom granda kvanto da laboro povus esti sxparata, se libroj cxie en la mondo povus esti tiel gxenerale komprenataj kiel ekzemple la muziknotoj aux logaritmaj tabeloj.  

IDO

La ideo pri mondo-literaturo, quan Herder e Goethe konceptis esence del vidpunto dil arto, ganis nun del vidpunto dil cienco mem plu granda importo. Nam del kozi, quin la homaro posedas komune, nula es tam vere universala ed internaciona kam la cienco. Or, omna komunikado e propogado dil cienco uzas la moyeno dil linguo, do la internacioneso dil cienco postulas nerezisteble la internacioneso dil linguo. Se ni konsideras, ke cadie sat multa ciencala verki, specale lernolibri, tradukesas aden dekedu o plu multa stranjera lingui, ni komprenas, qua enorma quanteso de laboro povus sparesar, se libri omnaloke sur la terglobo povus komprenesar tam generale, kam exemple muzikal noti o logaritmala tabeli.

OCCIDENTAL

Li idé pri mund-literature, quel Herder e Goethe hat conceptet esentialmen ex li vidpunctu del arte, ha nu ganat ancor mult plu grand importantie ex li vidpunctu del scientie. Nam de omni comun possedages del homanité niun es tam vermen general e international, quam scientie. me omni comunication e transmediation del scientie usa li medie del lingue. Do li internationalità del scientie ínresistibilmen postula li internationalità del lingue. Si noi considera, que hodie pluri sciential ovres, specialmen libres de aprension, trova se traductet in decidu o plu foren lingues, tande noi comprende quel immens quantità de labor on vell economisar, si on vell posser comprender libres partú sur li glob sam generalmen quam por exemples notes e tabelles de logaritmes.

NOVIAL

Li idee pri monde-literature, kel Herder e Goethe koncepted esentialim fro li vidpunctu del arte, ha nun ganat mem multim plu grand importanteso fro li vidpunctu del scientie. Den ek li coses kel li homaro posese comunim, nuli es tam verim general e international kam li scientie. Or omni comunico e mediatione del scientie usa li moyene del lingue, dunke li internationaleso del scientie demanda nonresistablim li internationaleso del lingue. Si nus considera ke disdi pluri sciential verkes, particularim lernolibres, es traductet en dekdu e plu multi stranjeri lingues, tand nus comprenda qui imensi quanteso de laboro povud bli sparat, si libres povud omnilok sur li globe bli comprendat tam generalim kam exemplim musical notes o tabeles de logaritmes.

LATINO SINE FLEXIONE (INTERLINGUA)

Idea de literatura mundiale, que Herder et Goethe habe intellecto præcipue ex puncto de visu de arte, habe hodie acquisito, ex puncto de visu de scientia, sensu etiam majore. Nam, de commune possesiones de genere humano, nihil es tam generale et internationale quam scientia. Sed omne communicatione et propogatione de scientia ute auxilio de lingua, et ita internationalitate de scientia postula in modo irresistibile internationalitate de lingua. Si nos considera, que hodie plure opere scientifico, in particulare tractatus, es translato in duodecim vel plus lingua extero, tunc nos cognosce quale immane mole de labore pote es præservato, si libros, ubicumque in terra, pote es æqualiter intellecto in generale, sicut per exemplo notas musicale aut tabulas de logarithmos.

INTERLINGUA / IALA

Le idea de literatura mundial que Herder e Goethe concipeva essentialmente ex li puncto de vista del arte, ha nunc ganate ancora multo plus grande importantia ex li puncto de vista del scientia. Nam de omne commun possessiones del humanitate necun es tam vermente general e international quam le scientia. Sed omne communication e propagation del scientia usa le medio del lingua. Tunc le internationalitate del scientia irresistibilemente postula le internationalitate del lingua. Si nos considera, que hodie plure obras scientific, specialmente libros de insenio, se trova traducite in dece-duo o plus linguas estranie tunc nos comprende qual immense quantitate de labor on economisarea, si on poterea tanto generalmente comprender libros ubicumque apud le globo como assi notas musical o tabulas de logarithmos.

 

Ne olves informi  conoy tua amikoy pe ta sayto!

Qono lerno Atlango, ta aprasos ta lango! 

Mi invita Tu po fedi linkoy ka ta sayto Atlanga.



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