gramatiko


GRAMATIKO ATLANGA.

(21.08.2019)


Gramatiko di Atlango esta simpla.


Pronunso i Atlango:

VOWELS. The vowels of the alphabet are pronounced as follows:

a as in English: far.  e as in fiancé,  i as in machineo as in toll,  u as in rural.

CONSONANTS. The consonants  bdf,  hklmnptvw, are pronounced as in English, and the 

remaining as follows:

c like ch in much.

g like g in go

as in  German and Scotch ch, Spanish j, Irish gh, Polish ch 

j like in Portuguese, French and in English: z in azure,  s in visual.  

OR: j like in English  jar. (jh)

jh like English J (John)- i Atlango: Jhon, Jhessica, jhinso, if needed)

l, L - like in Polish

q as KF  like in kvetch, kvetcher

y like y in yesbeyond.

r is slightly trilled or rolled. (like in Spanish, Italian, Polish, Russian.)

s like s in seebasis.

x like sh in shine, ch in machine. (I Atlango:  xautes- to shout, xenzo -science)

w like English w 

zz like ts in pizza, tsetse, tsar

DIPHTHONGS.

Diphthongs are combinations of two vowels uttered as a single sound, by one breath-impulse. 

Their pronunciation is as follows:

ay like ai in aisleey like ei in veiney in theyoy like oi in coinoy in boyuy like ui in ruinu(e)y in gluey.

ua ue - w-a, w-e, eu like ayw in wayward, or like é(h)oo pronounced together.  au like ou in out , uo like w 


A number of words start with s followed by a consonant. A speaker who finds this difficult can add a 

leading E. For ex: spendes  (to spend) e+spendes, spazo (space) e+spazo, skintes (shine) e+skintes. 

This formation you can also use in poetry.

 

Le alfabeto Atlanga konsista de 27 letroy. 

I Atlango ne estenta spesya letroy ko supersignoy qe lo-s i Esperanto.  

 

Numoy di letroy: 

versio 1. a bo co do (jho) e fo go ho i jo ko lo mo no o po qo(kfo) ro so to u vo wo xo yo zo zzo 

2. a be ce de (jhe)e fe ge he i je ka  el(e) em(e) en(e) o pe qo(kfo) er(e) es(e) te u ve ew(e) xe ye ze zze 

 

Such a forms like -ia, -io, are pronounced as iya, iyo. (Fransio, Polonio, Germanio.)  

(The forms eu, au -(ne-utra, a-uto, a-utoro) can be also pronounced as: ew, aw (newtra, awto, awtoro))

Stress falls most often on the second-last syllable. Le aksento le plu freqe kyada al prefina silabo. 

Po esemplo: atlAngo, capElo (-in english: hat), lAngo -(in english: language) dOmoy

 (houses), dyEmoy (days).

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ATENTO: Also such a words as:  pOkter, Algem, mOlter, (ect. - ttp. - ti te plonge). 

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Subestansivo (substantive) maxa (has) le finado - O

islo -in English: island, terdo -in English: earth, ( in German: erde, in Spanish: tierra.) suaro ( in 

French: le soir)  numo -name, manotano - man (a male person), menoteno,  femENo -woman, 

hermeno - sister, frato (hermano) - brother,  pueno, joveno - girl, koro - heart, arbo - tree,  decimo 

decision. (decim-es - to take a decision -im-hando - hand, kepo - head.


Plurivo (the plurals) maxa le finado - OY 

 (som(e) qe i Esperanto - ”oj”) koroy (hearts) 

 bukoy (libroy) - books,  klaudoy - clouds,  garsoy - boys, puenoy - girls


Adyektivo  maxa le finado - A  

buna - good, bela - (in French: belle) beautiful, rapa (rapida) - fast, interesa -interesting, ruja - red 

nuva -new (in French: nouveau) rika - rich, skalta - high. 

(Konzzerne kal adyektivoy dusilaba finita pe M N R L W Y - (po esemplo: grana - big,

mala -bad) - se unteda le formoy pli korta: gran, mal, bun. (Il formo eufoniall ta vortoy esta 

somtempe adyektivoy ti adverbivoy!)

Adjectives  must not agree with nouns and they very seldom, when needed, take the plural 

ending -y.

Atento: The Greens (Le Grinay)

In Atlango, adjectives can precede the noun as in English, or follow the noun as in Spanish. 

Thus, Mi-x le libro blua  - Mi-x le blua libro -   means the same thing.


Adverbivo maxa le finado -E.  

Fare, diste -far away, lenke -slowly, proxe -near, close, fore- in front of

And also:  le adverbivoy ”korilativa” finita pe:   -em, -en, ens, -er, -ey.


Infinitivo ti Imperativo maxa le finado -ES


ves (venges) - to go, VES - to go, go!)

estes , or: (e)stes  to be,  (short form - for  economy of expression. Like in English. I´m - Mi-s)  

- to be, ES! - Be!

maxes  to have, (short form - for  economy of expression. Like in English. I´ve - Mi-x) 

-x (from: mAXes and poXes) - to have, to possess. 


dABes   (suffix:  -AB-) - must 

puEDes (suffix:  -ED-) - can 

dEZes   (suffix:  -EZ-)  - want 

trEBes  (suffix:  -EB-) - need

YELes   (suffix: -YEL-- to eat 

resIBes - receive (suffix:  -IB-) (bemaxes)

decIMes - decide (suffix:  -IM-)

hELP-es - help (suffix: -ELP-)

intEND-es to intend, to be going to...(suffix: -END-)

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BE-feres, beferes  (causative prefixBE+ ) - to make  (Esperanto suffix: igi)

sestes, SEMferes  (become prefixSEM+ ) - to make oneself, become (Esp: igxi)

BI-feres, biferes  (causative prefix: BI+ ) to deprive of, to deprive  (Esp: sen… igi)

SIM-feres, SIMferes  (causative prefixSIM+ ) to get rid  (Esp: sen… igxi)

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dares - to give

habes - rutine,  to have a habit  (P: prefix:  habe-)

kunes - to know,  kun-ED-es - (puedes (po) kunes) - to know how – prefix: KUN-  (kunf(er)es -to 

know how to do)

fales  - to speak  

sombles -to seem

prines -to take 

vires - to see

mires - to look

kyantes  - to sing 

skrites - to write,  (eskrites)

trekes - to pull

pustes - to push

pans(es) - to think

kyades - to fall

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Il situenzo qem infinitivo (be)koma sentenzzo mu pueda bepreseqes le infinitivo pel vortikulo: 

 ”po”

Po kyantes lo-s ne fasile - It is not easy to sing.

Po trefedes (puedes trefes) tu,  to-s ma drimo. (dyemdrimo - daydream)

Lo-s ne fasile kyantes.

Mi dezi yeles to - I wanted to eat it. (Mi yeleza to = mi tom yeleza.)

Mi konsilu ka tu (po) lektes ta buko. Mi tun konsilu lektes ta buko.

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A  -  by, at and  indefinit preposition. (Like ”je” in Esperanto.) a le = al,  au+

auestes, au-stes = to be present at, when)

by, at = a.  The house by the river - Le domo al flumo. Le domo aufluma.

He took her by the hand - Hi prinis li a le hando. (al hando OR: auhande.)

Glaso di vino to-s glaso plenta a (di) vino.  (Plentita auvine)

(Also: Glaso plentER vino.)

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Ki ti  a :

Le matro feris  le rumo (ki) a purga. ( Le matro BEpurgis le rumo.)

Se (be)numis li (ki) a Rozo. 

Conoy titolis hi (ki) a profesoro, mo posem hi sem montris (ki) a simpla instruisto. 

Se koncidis (betraktis) ta difekto (ki) totye sinsigna. 

Hays(es) le rumo (ki)a varma!


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PRI (about)  QANTERO:

Atento: Q is pronounced as: KF !

how many? Qer (di) pauno tu deza? = Qe grana qanteroM di pauno tu 

deza? = Qer tu deza di pauno?)  Di nutradoy mu-x tere qer mu treba. 

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TEMPOY

Lom tempoy (tempivoy) ti modoy (modivoy) mu krea pe preseqeso dil verbo pe persona 

pronumo (zamnumo) ho korilativa vortetoy ti toje pe adizzo dil finado tempall ho modall:

PaxIntemo (Estintemo)- I.  Mi vengi, (mi vi) I went, mu skriti -we wrote, lu dormi- they sleep

EstAntemo - A.  Tu fala -you are saying, li lekta -she is reading

FuturO  (Estontemo) - O.  Tono viro - hi, she, it will see

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LE FORMO PERFEKTA.

 Completion of action and also sudden and momentary action.  

The perfect aspect (solme ya to-s nezzesa!) formata-s pel finadoy: 

-I+S , -O+S, -U+S  (-S as perfective marker.)  

(But only for Pasintemo, Futuro and Konda modo!)

Mu ne unta le formo perfekta il imperativo ti infinitivo! -ES 

Po esemplo: mi skritiS - I have (already) written,  I had written. Mi

 viriS to - I have seen it,  Mi finos to - I will have finished it.

 Lu komkorsis - They have (already) started to run. Hi mortis. – He has (already) died. 

(Atento: Hi morti = hi esti mortanta. – He was dying.)

-S this perfective marker, we borrow from yus - already.

We can use the word YUS instead of -S !

I have (already) written,  I had written. - Mi skritiS to. Or: Mi YU skriti to.

Atento: Il modo Imperativa ti Infinitiva) (-ES) le -S esta cem (always) sul fino.

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Imperativo -ES 

Mu feres to!  Fer!  -Lets (we) do it ! Ves!- go! Vyen! - come! Vames! (Vam! Ves!-Let ́s go!

For!  Foren! - Forwards!   Far! Faren! - Away!

Ti yal eufonia situenzo purmesa - mu unteda korta, unesilaba imperativoy:

Dar! (dares!) -  Give!  Mir! - Look! Prin! - Get!  Max! -Have! Var! ( vartes!) -Wait!  Ves! 

- Go! ( venges!) Do it! - Fer! Be!  Fales! Fal! -Say!  Es! Estes! -Be! Ses! Sem!- Become! Ben! - Bless! 

(Es benita!)  Pans! (panses! - Think!) Stop! -Stop! Korses! Kors! -Run!  Kom! -Begin!  Plis far!

(farves!) - Please, go away.  (Plis) Porfavore, ne ves - Please, do not go. 

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LES:

Qezze le imperativo se pueda untes toje le vorteto: LES. (Leses!)  

Let him go! - Les hi va (venga)! Hi ves! Les hin ves! 

Les mu fera to! -Lets (we) do it ! Les mu va! - go!) Les to-s… Les lo-s - Let it be...

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KE SOLME ho MEY:

You can also use: Ke solme… (if only) or:  Mey… (may)

May you be happy - Ke solme li-s sana. or:  Mey tu-s felica! Mey li-s sana!

Mey mu viva longem!

May it be!- Ke solme! Mey! Oha-la! (in Spanish: ojalá!

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Subyuntiva formo - subjunctive form:

Mi pida, ke hi vyenes. – I ask that he comes.

Mi dezira ke tu estos  re (denuve)  sana (sanida). – I wish you to get healthy again. 

Mi bringis  le buko, po ke tom tu lektes. – I brought the book for you to read.

(Mi kanportis le buko, qam tu lektes.)

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In indirect speech Atlango uses "ke …  +es" after verbs such as: want, wish, order, advise, tell

 etc. where English uses the infinitive.

Mi deza ke tu ves ka Fransio  -    I want you to go to France.

Mi ordunis ke hi ves hejmen    -    I ordered him to go home.

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Konda modo (kondivo)

The conditional is formed by: - U   Lu bildu  - They would construct

The conditional perfect is formed by: - US   Lu bildus   - They would have constructed

( If he would run, we would catch him - Ya hi korsu(s), mu him keptu(s).)

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PERSONA PRONUMOY:

MI -  I   

TU- you  (also plural form!)  

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TO  - it ,   (This - TA) - person,  (TADO) objects, things

TONO -  persons or similar to person, (TENO - female person, TANO -masculine person).

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(LO -  dummy subject.)

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ZZI - (TONO) (teno ti tano) - she, he  (P: person gender neutral) 

HI - he 

LI - she 

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MU -we  

TU -  you  (or if needed: TYU - in plural) 

LU - they (TONOY and TADOY (things))

Refleksivo:

SE - English equivalent for”one” and oneself

Nepersona  (ki refleksiva pronumo):

SE  ( UNO - one, (they, some people, also: UNAY))

Se kuna nem - One never knows. Freme unay esta dormeza. Suare(m) se-s tira. 

You don´t have to go - Se ne v-aba. (Se ne daba v(eng)es), That is not known - Se ne kuna to. 

Se skrita qe se pronunsa. 

Such houses are not built any more - Se ne plonge(m) bilda tezza domoy, bildadoy.

Mi audi goso (klaco), ke…  = I heard a rumor that…

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SEM:

As refleksive pronaun is translated: herself, himself, itself, themselves and oneself.

Lu kumbi se - Lu semkumbi  = They brushed their hair. 

But also to show netransitivezzo:  Tyem lo (sem) kambis ma planoy. 

Hi lavi le enfo ti posem se (se sel)  =  He washed the child and then himself.

1.Atento: SEM+ is also used like Esperanta ”igx” ! - become, get.

2.Atento: SIM+ (with I) is  like Esperanta ”igx” but in opposite meaning: depriving yourself of 

something. (semliberes da…, de…) 

2. Nepersona pronumo: LO ( -impersonal "it", dummy subject, grammatical subject, fact, 

situation.

 The dummy pronoun LO:

1. Lo refers to an indeterminate object - to a fact, action or situation rather than to a thing: 

Prin(es) ta pomo, mi dezira lo, Take this apple, I desire it (= I desire you to do so )

2. Lo as an impersonal "it" with adjectives: it's cold - Lo-s kolde (frige)

3. Lo as an impersonal "it" with verbs:

Lo pyuva - it rains - it is raining. (You can also say: se pyuva.)

Lo-s le pena -It ́s five o ́clock

Lo esto Serdo tompe - It will be Wednesday tomorrow.


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For euphonious purposes or to avoid misunderstandings between pronouns we can add - e -. 

For  example: mi, li, hi to = emi, eli, ehi, eto - ti: - mu, lu = emu, elu -we, - e - se = ese - self.

We can use these forms in Atlango´s poetry.

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sel(a) - self. po esemplo: Tu sel lektes - Lek´ to sel! Read (for) yourself. Mi sel tom feris -I 

have made it myself. (mi feris to sel) selstansa - independent (sindependa) 

Esemple: Tyem le royo sel virezi to.

Nepersona pronumo: se (situation, state - when there is no visible subject )

Po esemplo: Se fala - They speak. Algono (uno) pansa - se pansa - One thinks

Se fales ki se deza. - Let people say what they like . (Las se fal´ ki se deza)

Tu trompa tu sel!

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Le difinita artiklivo - LE

Le is used before any noun which refers to something or someone that has been mentioned earlier.

Use LE where you could just as well use TA or TRA. 

Untes LE qey tu simple egalbune unteda TA ho TRA.

People for whom use of the article offers difficulties (e.g. speakers of Chinese, Russian, Polish,) may at first elect not to use it at all.

le urbo - the town, 

le Grinay -The Greens

ley Smith, ley Jackson

Article LE are usually dropped in headlines. Esemple: ( ”NUVA KLENOY DIL ROYANO.”)

I pronunso, letraturo ti poezio se unta formoy pli korta:

dil ho di-l = di le, del ho de-l = de le, kal -ka le,  po - pol, sul - su le, il = i le, 

sobrel - sobre le, konfe le - konfel… ttp.

di le popolo- dil popol ́, ( dil popol ́) de le domo- del dom ́, (ka le skolo - kal skol ́

Ho simple ne untes ta artiklivo!   di popol ́, de dom ́


Nedifinita artiklivo ne estenta i Atlango mo Tu unteda : un, uno 


TABELO DI PRONUMOY ADYEKTIVA TI POXIVA:

Di qa? Qia? - Whose - QIA

Emfatikivoy  (Le ….  + di ..)

ma- my                                    Emfatika:  le … di mi 

mua -our                                  Emfatika:  le … di mu

tua - your, yours                      Emfatika:   le  …di tu

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tyua - your especially for plural     Emfatika ti jentila:   le  … di tyu

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P: zza (gender neutral)          Emfatika:  le  … di zzi

tona- her, his, its - tada          Emfatika:  le  … di  to 

Also: tia (di to = t-ia                               

(persons, animals and objects)

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ha- his                                       Emfatika:  le  … di hi

la- her                                        Emfatika:  le  … di li

lua -(their)                                 Emfatika:  le  … di lu

(to -this, it)  tia, tada,  - its)

Refleksiva pronumo:  

sa - one`s                                   Emfatika:  le  … di se


Adyektiva pronumoy:

(Lom le adyektiva pronumoy: mua, tua, lua - mu pueda pronunses ki: "mwa, twa, lwa”! 

Mo prefe i poezio) 

Atento: Le formo lingvall (le … -a) untatas spareze ti po stilistiko.

This special form in Atlango is used sparingly and for stilistics only!

Po esemplo:

Hi ne interesi pril saudatoy di se (emfatika)

Qia to-s domo? ( Also: Qia-s domo?)

To-s le domo di mi (emfatika)

Mi fate ne kuna qia to-s kulpo.

Ta, qa jola pri algia desfelico, ne restos si puno.

I Atlango: To-s alga innuvado, pri qia acepto se daba altekonsiles.

(In Esperanto: Ĝi estas ia ennovaĵo, pri kies akceptado oni devas konsiliĝi.)

Deklino di subestansivoy:

Genetivo: di - le lango di le (dil) totya hominero - the language of the whole humanity.

Esemplo: Le skyelo esta di blua koloro. 

Dativo: ka  (kan+) le purto - to the harbour

Lo-s toje tezza dativa formoy korta: ka mi - min, ka tu- tun, ka hi- hin, etc.

Esemplo: Vo, (Do) dares to ka mi! - Vo, dar´ to min! - Well now, give it to me!

Sing it for me - Kyant(es) min to. (Kyantes to po mi)

Atento: Mu toje bekorteda Ka aste k´.  Exemplo: Mi dezira ka tu le somo. = Mi dezira k tu le somo. 

Dar to ka mi! = Dar to k mi. Hi sem proxi ka mu = Hi sem proxi k mu.  Come to me! - Vyen k mi! 

(Prounanced as: ktu, kmi, kmu, (as in Russian))


Akusativo:  -m, lom (We use this only when object precedes subject)

Mi vira le domo, - mo: (inverted sentence structure: - mi le domom vira - or: Lom le domo mi 

vira. 

Autom mi kofis   - or: Lom auto mi kofis. A car bought I. Mi ama tu - I 

love you. Mo : Tum (e)mi ama. (Lom Tu mi ama)

Hi skrita interesanta nuveloy, - mo: (inverted sentence structure: - Lom interesanta nuveloy hi skrita.

I alga okazo (plurivo!)  se unteda akuzativa partikulo - lom

Yakto lom drakoy - hunting for drakes. (Yakto kontre drakoy. Yakto a drakoy. Yakto po drakoy.)

Mi ama tu, ne ta tano (mano). I love you, not that man. (That man does not love you)

Mi ama tu, ne tam tano. (Ne lom ta tano) I love you. (I do not love that man.)


Direction: (Diro, dirento)

You can use: le korilativa vortuleto -EN to show MOTION TOWARDS: 

Let’s go to the house - Mu ves (venges) kal domo. OR: Mu ves domEN. Inves! - Come in!  

ATENTO: (In this case do not use ” le ”!) 

Put it outside the house -Pondes to uten. (Pon ́ to utey!) 

Put it there - Pon to tren.

Vokativo: (He!) (hello man! - he, homino! )

Vokativoy Atlanga. Interjections:

Well!  well now! - Buen! Vam! O-key!

ahoy!   - He-hoy! He! 

alas! alack!  - He-las!  He-lak! -Ve!  Vanide! Grete, Greteje, Triste.

hello!  - He-lo! Saluto! He! Hay, Hey!

WoW! - He-la!  Wau!

Lo-s makse importa pronumoy:

1. Le pronumoy untita za subestansivoy: - o  (Pos lu freqe lo seqa alga verbo)

PERSONO:

qi? - who? which, ( relative for person!) algono -someone, tono -this person, trono-that 

person, cono -everybody. nono -nobody

Some  (indeterminate) - Nalga, Nalgono. 

Akusativo:  Lom qi, qim

Qi-s tey?: who is there?

Pluriva formo:

Tonoy, tronoy, conoy, algonoy, nonoy

NEPERSONO:

qo? -what? (relative for things!) algo - something, to -this, tro -that, co -all, no - nothing 

Qo to esta? (Qo-s to?)What is this? Qo eventis? -What has happened?  Qo eventos? -What will 

happen? 

Akusativo: Lom qo, qom

To (lo) eventos. - It will happen.

Pluriva formo ya to-s nezzesa:

qoy?  toy, troy, coy, algoy, noy (nadoy)

Akusativo: Lom qoy

We can also use more eufonious and emphatic form:  qado? -what a thing? tado - that thing, 

nado - no thing,  cado - everything, all

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Atento: Le prenumo Lo (dummy subject) preseqa verboy i renverta ordino:

There is a mistery island. Lo-s alga misteria islo. (P: L-esta alga…)

2. Le pronumoy adyektiva ti distributiva: -a

qa? -who, which, which one? (also relative for both person and things) alga -some, any, certain, ta -

this one  tra -that one, ca - each, every (distributive), na - nothing

qa: (relative and interrogative pronoun; acc. qam) who, what, which (also person) 

qa mano vyenis: which man came? qa kloko esta: what time is it? (or, what is the hour?);la pluvo qa kyadis: the rain which fell; le libro qam mi daris ka tyu: the book which I gave you; le pueno qam mi ama: the girl whom I love; qa va tey  (milit.) who goes there? 

qo: (acc. qom): what, which (thing, fact); (Note: The forms qo, qom are also used adjectively when referring to other pronouns ending in -o; as, to qo, co qo, totyo qo, na qoqo used as an interrogative refers to something indefinite; as, qo eventis? what happened; qo-s pli buna: which (thing) is better? qom hi fali?: what did he say? qo, qes verde?: what! is it true? qom (mi daba) feres , qom mi feraba? qom mi feraxa? what is to be done? (used adjectively) prin to qom tyu deza: take what you will. Qay  (pl. form ofqa and qo) who, what, which; qay paroli: who (plural) spoke? le personoy qay paroli: the persons who spoke; tay qam mi ama: those whom I love. 

Pluriva formo:

qay?  tay, tray, cay, algay, nay

Qa evento? -What a event? Ta evento - This event. Qa to esta? (Qa to-s?, Qa-s to? -Which is it?

Conoy (collectively) paroli ti ca (distributively) i sa lango. - Everyone spoke and each in his own

 language. Or: Conoy paroli ti (mo) cono i sa lango.

Demonstrative: to, tono, ta, tra (this, that, this one)

--------------------------------------------

Formoy: liqa, hiqa, 

Le matro di ma amiko, liqa...     My friend's mother, who (she) ... 

Le matro di ma amiko, hiqa...    The mother of my friend, who (he) ...

---------------------------------------------

Qalitezzo:

Le qalitezza pronumoy adyektiva: -ezza

qezza?-what kind? algezza-some kind of, tezza-such a, cezza -every kind of,  in this way - te, ta-

mode, in such a way: tezze, tezzamode.


Atlanga korilativoy (pri situenzo ti tempo): e, ey, em, er, en, el 


MODO (modeEo) manner - E  

QE? -how , ALGE - samehow, TE - in this way, TRE - in that way, CE - in every way, NE - no, in no

 way ( ne = neu!, Oh ne!)

LOKEYO place - ey  

QEY? - where? ALGEY - somewhere, TEY - here, TREY - there, CEY- everywhere, NEY - nowhere.

TEMPO  time - em    

QEM? - When? ALGEM -anytime, TEM - now (tyem(e)), TREM - then,  do, CEM -always, NEM - 

never.

QANTERO quantity, group,- er  

QER? - How much? ALGER - some quantity,  TER - so many,  TRER ---, CER - the whole quantity, 

NER - none.

DIRENTO direction - EN 

QEN? - Where to? ALGEN - somewhere (to), TEN - in this direction, TREN- in that direction, 

CEN - in all directions, NEN - in no direction.

-----------------------------------------------------------

KAUENSO cause  - ENS

QENS?      Qakau(ens)se?  po qo?  Why? 

ALGENS  Algakause for some reason, 

TENS        Takause - po to, ke...    so, for this, 

TRENS      Trakause - for that reason, 

CENS         Cakause -  po co,  for every reason, 

NENS         Nakause  - po no,  for no reason.

----------------------------------------------------------

POSSESION (poxo, maxo)  - ia

QIA? - whose? (person) QIA- whose, ALGIA - someone’s,  TIA - this one’s (object),  TRIA - that one’s, CIA - 

everyone’s,  NIA - nobody’s.

Qalga -whichever , qalgo, qalgado -whatever, qalgono - whoever, qalgem -whatever time, qalgia -

anyone’s,  ce - ca-mode, in every way, however, nevertheless

QANYe? - In which year? Canye - every year. Tanye - this year, Tranye - last year. (pasintanye)

Atento:

Le korilativa vortetoy ”ey”(lokeyo) ti ”er”(qantero - ilość, zbiór) funka qezze sindependa sufikso 

ti prineda le finado -o

 Esemple: 

kuqeyo - kitchen

hominero - ludzkość

Le korilativo ”em” esta le sufikso "hala" ti do (doke) lo estaba prezentita il vortero!

Esemplo: estontemo - future (futuro), adolescence - jovemo. (Me ne:  problemo! Lepiej powiedzieć: 

problemato)


(Pli grana tabelo dil korilativoy esta sul advepagino KORILATIVOY.) 

–––––––––––––––––––––––––––

Spesya korilativorto  ZZe -

zze – akurate ti presye - exactly (as to the …) 

zzey – exactly in this place - akuratey, very near to… (molte proxey)

zzer – exactly as much - akurater

zzem – exactly in this time, on time, punctually (bunem, zze tempe) - akuratem

- as to the fraction of a second. - Zzem le frakso di sekundo 

zzen – exactly in this direction - akuraten


––––––––––––––––––––––––––––


Pli molte pri rilata pronumo: 

1. P: Rilata pronumo:  QA - QAM  ( qa le = qal)

qa, qo+m, qa+m, qe, te,  - who, which, that, like, just

Esemploy:

Li pinti qe  verda pintisto.  She painted like a real painter.
Yohano (Djon) nauda qe  fixo.   John swims like a fish.

-------

Adamo esta te  grana qe Nilso.  Adam is as big as Nils.

-------

Ves ka hi qa-s trey, ti frages hi pril voyo.  Go to him who is over there, and ask him for the way.

———

BUT:

Hi labori qezze or: ki instruisto.  He worked, as a teacher.

Qezze (ki) programisto hi ne suksidis.    As a programmer he had no success.

-------

Le televistoro, qam mi kofis, esta molte buna.      The TV set, which I bought, is very good. 

Lom homino qam tu viri timpe, tu trefeda (pueda trefes) tampe.

or: Le homino virita-s pe tu timpe,  trefedata-s pe tu tampe.  

-------

Boke (Tens ke) elektro paris (sem paris), lu ne kuktedi kafo. As the power went, they could not cook 

coffee.

Qe (solme, akuratem) mu entris le dezerto, le aqo finis.     Just as we walked into the desert, the 

water went out.

Qe zzem (Qem zze) pludo finis, lo kompyuvis.              Just as the game ended, it started raining.

Qem(e) mi denvi (desentri), (do) le mobijo (fonijo) fonis.      As I was leaving, the phone rang.

Le rezulto n-esti te mala qe  mi esperi. The results were not as bad as I had expected.

-------

Qezze mi lengi!       As I've longed!
Qezze li bristi tu!    As she has missed you!
Te kortem qe eble   As soon as possible. (Swedish: Så snart som möjligt)

———

2. The relative possessive adjective is:  QIA

Mi helpezi kal pueno qia ( di qa) ombrelo kleptita-s.  I wanted to help the girl whose umbrella got 

stolen.

Le enfoy qia kristnaska giftoy rompita-s sestis trista. (semtristis.) The children whose Christmas 

presents got broken became sad.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

3. Korilativa rilata pronumo:  QA -which, which one, who 

Qa homino esta makse (le plu) proxe(y)? Which man is nearest ?

Le homino, qa trey stara - That man, who is standing there.

Qa libro esta interesa, interesanta? - Which one (of these) books is interesting?

Ta, qa-x  molte piktadoy. -This one, which has many pictures. 

She´s the person which I love - Li-s le persono qam mi ama.  

Or: Li-s le persono lom qa mi ama. )

-----------------

do, doke, dokem -so, then

Tem , qem - Tem, do…(dokem) / Tem, qe.../

tyem, tyeme - now

un, una, uno -(alga, algono) - one, certain

Otra vortoy importa:

Tezzo! Tey-s... - voila! (Vo-la!) Vamo!  

to... to... Alterne alga situenzo ti otra, alga evento ti otra: to marxante, to korsante hi vyenis kal

 domo.


Qes ? - interrogative particle ( in Esperanto: cxu?)

yes, ye  -yes

ne, (neu) - no, not  (in no way - na-mode) 

Prefixes and prepositions:

ni,   ni… ni…  - nor,  neither … nor.  Mi ni fuma ni (mi) unta alkoholo.

Ni timpe ni tampe mi resibis brifo. ( brifibis - bemaxis brifo)

preske, nepreske - (ne totye, ne totyagrade) not completely, not wholly

te - so (in this way- ta-mode)

ti -  and  

toje (je) - also, too (je le = jel)

kan+ (as PREFIX) to,  ka - to (as PREPOSITON)  (ka le = kal) to the...

pri, (sobre) - about (pri le = pril) Lo temata … To fala pri..., to fala sobre… 

po, (po ke) , por+ (as PREFIX), in order to (po le = pol)

pe,  per+   by (moyo)

ri, rin+ (rilate ka) relating to  (-all, -arr)

si, sin+ -without  ( bi- , (in Esperanto: sin...igi ))

aste -till, until (aste le = astel, astem, astey)

di -(also follows expressions of quantity, weight, mesure.) (plier) pli di aqo - more water, plenta di 

vino.

da, dan+  from, created by, because of, ( reason (In Esperanto: pro)  fere da, verke da -  by - (Po 

montres aganto) Verb:  danves    

daqe  - than (in Esperanto: ol) ( da, qe)

de, den+ - out of, (de le = del)

de, den+ from, also: of, ferita de, kreita de ( krugo de metalo)  also: krugo metall, krugo denmetala,

Verb:  be-denes, denves

i , in+   in (i le = il)

a, au+ - at, by

a (au)  (as indef.prepn. like in Esperanto - je) To-s plenta au aqo. (Also: To-s plenta di aqo.)          

kortem - soon 

pre, antey - before, in front of (fronte di)

pre, antem - before in time 

akurate, zze - just

akuratem pas, zzem pas - just a moment ago

pos, pose, posem, pos tem (in time) -after (desfronte di, posey)  bakem - back in time

enke- still, yet

re, denuve (danuve) - again, once again, (enkevolte, renvolte)  de komo - denkome. 

(Esemplo: To renesta tey. - It is here again.)

daurem, dau, konfem, interem, inem - during, while  

sudden, ly - rape, rapte, rapta, sobe, soba   SO+

(Esemplo: suddenly he sow - Hi so+viris, Hi sobe viris, Hi rapte viris P: zze viris)

————————

tempo - time

tampe, P: adyem - today

timpe,  P: idyem - yesterday (timpadyeme)

tompe, P: odyem - tomorrow

————————

Seasons of the year:

spring - (e)springo, springEMo 

summer - verno, vernEMo

autumn, fall - otuno, otunEMo 

winter - vintro, vintrEMo

————————

ya - if   

yus - already  

yo - (emphatic particle) indeed. Yo mi vis - I did go.  

fate - efektive - indeed - syerte, (verde, porverde, verdefate) 

zze - just

zzem - just now, (akuratem,  zze tyem) 

tuy - bliksem - immediately

prekortem, antekortem, kortem pas  (a moment ago) - antem

zzey - just here

inte, inter+,  between

ke  -for, that

solme -only

mo -but

ambe- both

otra - another

zora, zore   difficult

zor (zor+) -(preske) konpenge, konzore, auzore,  -  barely 

bo, po to ke, takause ke,  P: boke -  because

ho (hod) - or

ko, kon+, - with, together (kone ko) Verb:  bekones, sem kones

dis(+e) -dispersal, separation. Verb:  bedises, sem dises

sub(+e) -under    Verb:  besubes, sem subes

dre  -through,  Verb:  bedres, semdres (dre)

pluke -too much  ( super-)  Verb:  beplukes

trans(+e) - behind, to the other side   Verb:  betranses, sem transes, transeves

ute - (ute+) outside, beyond, utey -outside, go outside -vi uten,ut-en-v-es,  sort-es, utem- out of time, 

abroad - utelande

ekte - (ekter+) beyond (ekternaturall)

centre - inside   Verb:  centr-es, becentr-es, sem centr-es

su, sur+, (su le = sul) - on    Verb:  sur-es, besures, semsures

molte, molter - a lot of, much,  molte = very,   very much = molmolte, moltode, granmolte

pokte - a few (a small number of)  

mikre - (desmolte) (adv.) - little  Verb:  bemikres, semmikres

plus, pluse ( otraparte, sobre to, pluse to, adve, adve to) - moreover, except, apart from

pokta -some,  - pokte, pokter, pokto di...

prefe - rather

za, zam+, zame, -instead  Za riposes, hi labori. Za ves heymen, li vis kafeyen. 

P: xley -in different places

raptem - suddenly, (raptyem), (raptey - very near)

rape, raptem, sobe -  suddenly

blikse,  tuy -  immediately, Bliks! Tuy!

bliksey - very near (in place) -  tuy a, tuy ka

far - away

centre(y) - within

qezze, qe (kaze) - as , as if,  

kaze   Verb:  be-kazes

doke - however.  (To-s verdo, mo… ), Lo pyuva -  mo doke mu ves. 

trozze - although (yanke - anke ya)

vo - well now (do)


————————

as (being)  qezze,  KI (as an expert she knows = qezze spertisto li kuna. 

Hi qezze (ki) prezidento elektis hi po sekretaryono. Hi trakti hi a venkinto. 

Or:  qezze - as (being) to be, in the character, quality of.  Qezze( ki) esemplo - as being an 

example.

              Mi, qezze prezidento, elektis hi (po)a Viceprezidento. 

             

-------------------------

Po eufonio mu unteda "e" sul fino hol komo di tezza vortoy:

 Po esemplo: pas - pase, pos - pose,  skuses - eskuses

-------------------------

Pokta importa verb(iv)oy:

answer (reply)  reples, Reples ma fragoy! Danvortes! P: respundes

appear - aperes

appear (look) - aspektes

appear as (seem) - sombles 

arrive - arives,  (come) vyenes

ask (question) - frages

be -estes,  -s

born be- naskes, (to give a birth -bortes)

bring  - bringes, adveportes, kanportes, P: feces

build  - bildes, konstrues.

buy  - kofes, xopes

concern  (relate to) - konzzernes, ri,  rilates pe, ka

congratulate - grates, kongrates 

continue - daur (em)-es, kontin-es

cook - kuktes, 

desire dezires

disappear - desaperes , P: farperes

drink - drinkes

eat  -yeles, -YELo (breakfest = fremyelo (primyelo), dinner = dyemyelo, supper = suaryelo)

fly - fluges

give - dares 

greet - salutes

intend (going to) - intendes , -END-va, vi, vo,  (I am going to watch this film - Mi va mires ta filmo. 

I was going to watch this film - Mi vi… or: Mi mirENDi ta filmo.)

kiss - beses

know (be acquainted with) - kunes, kuneses

know (by learning) - kunes (kunABes)

lead (guide) - gvides

let - les, leses 

like - kyeres

listen - (ask)oltes

love - ames

look at - mires

make (something) feres,  BE+

need  trebes   -EB-. Po esemplo: Ne dankEBe = Lo ne-s trebo (po) dankes.

be necessary - estes nezzesa

pray (communicate with God) - prektes.

prefer - prefes.

prepare - prepares

propose - propondes

put (on something) - pondes, plases = (be)lokes 

save (from danger) - salves

save (on computer) - sav-es , seyves )

say -fales

search for - xerkes, sokes

smile - smiles

guard - gardes

happen - eventes -evento

have - maxes (to possess - poxes, -x)

hear - audes 

help - helpes, aydes

hold - holdes, kontyenes, inmaxes

hope - esperes

joke - jokes

keep - tyenes, holdes

stand, be - stares, stanses

take - prines

talk (able to speak a language) langes, paroles

talk (conversation – loqo)  konverzes, loqes, interloqo, interparoles, altefalo

tell (say) - fales

tell a story - kentes

thank - dankes

try -  prumes, PRUM-

use - untes

want - dezes -EZ-

watch on - spektes

work - labores

understand -  kapes, kunprines

------------------------------------------------------- 

 

NUMBROY, SIFROY:

0 -nol(o) (zero) 1 un(o)    2 du    3 trin    4 qar    5 pen    6 seu   7 zem    8 ok    9 nau  10 dest(o) 

 ( dest- ) or ( deSt  -S- )

11 desto -un (UNSO (-S- )), 12 desto -du (DUSO), 13 desto-trin (TRINSO), 14 desto-qar

(QARSO), 15 desto-pen (PENSO) 16 desto-seu (SEUSO), 17 desto-zem (ZEMSO), 

18 desto-ok (OKSO), 19 desto-nau (NAUSO)  

pokte-S-anya,  es-anya -, desto-anya ... teen years old

dozen = DUSO

( dest or:  -T-) 

duto -20, trinto -30, qarto -40 pento -50 seuto -60  zemto -70 okto - 80 (ok(e)desto) nauto -90

or:

du(des)to-20, trindesto-30, qardesto-40, pendesto-50, seudesto -60, zemdesto -70 ok(e)desto

- 80, naudesto -90    

22 - dudesto-du, 33 - trindesto-trin ….

cento - 100  

centemo = zerzeremo (..00 centanyo)

mil(o), (tausento) - 1000, 

miliongo -1 000 000  

miliardo- 1 000 000 000

1947 - mil naucento qarto zem. (un nau qar zem, nauso-qarto zem))

1968 - mil naucento seuto ok (desto-nau seudesto-ok) (nauSo seuToOk) 

2002 - dumilo du

2013 - dumilo trinsa (duto trins(o))

2017 - dumilo zemso

2018 - dumilo oks(o) 

As in English, numbers may be given out by naming the digits only: 

2018 - du nul(zero) un ok

1300 - un trin zer-zero


Adyektivoy numerall:

-esm- or -a  first - unesma, una (prima), the 8th -okesma, the 80th -le oktesma ho le 

okedestesma, the12th -le dusa, le dusesma

Multiple: -opl-

duople -double , qarople -fourfold

Collective numeral: -ale, -all   

unale, unall,  - one by one, qaralo -quartet, qezze-l dualo = duale = duall  

-  i grupo di du. By twos, in pairs. (parel-mode) tausale, taus(ent)all, by thousands, qarale, qarall 

- by fours.

be-okales, to form into groups of eight.

Le PENALO (peno) di musikantoy pludi il salongo. 


Distributives: - PO(r) - at the rate of, so many at a time. 

Po un(e), (porune) po due, (pordue) po trine, po qare, po pene, po seue, po zeme, po oke, po naue, po 

deste. (pordeste)

lu drinki po un glaso -they drank one glass each 

mi lekti le buko i ca dyemo po qar ( [porqare) paginoy. 

Le drapo kosti po 2 dolaroy pormetre.

Lu (res)ibis  po pen pomoy. = Lu (res)ibis 5 pomoy po ca. = Ca de lu ibis  5 pomoy.

1. Mu vehi po pento (porpendeste) kilometroy ca dyemo.

3. Mu vehi pento di kliometroy ca-dyeme.

Fraction: 

-parto -(e)frakso ho -f- 

dufrakso (halo) -half, 1/2,(dufo)

trinfrakso 1/3 (trinfo) , qarefrakso 1/4 (qarfo), seufrakso - sixth 1/6 (seufo), 1/10 destofrakso

 = destofo, centefrakso 1/100 (centofo), 3/4 trin-qarfo, 5/6 pen-seufo

Numbers can take an adverbial ending:

due- secondly; 

trine, qare, pene, seue, zeme, oke, naue, deste...

Aritmetika kalkoloy:

Adizzo: (Addition) 12 + 10 = 22 desto-du plus(e) (P: adve) desto  esta  duto-du 

Subetraho: (subtraction) 21 - 3 = 18 duto-un minus(e)  trin esta  desto-ok

Moltopliko:  (molteso, bemolteso - multiplication) 3 x 8 = 24 trin ople ok,  ho trin moltata 

pe ok, esta  duto-qar, trin volte ok esta duto-qar.

Divideso: (division) 69 : 3 = 23 seuto-nau su (dividita pe, (dre) ) trin esta (egala) duto-trin

a2 = a qadra (qadrata) o a2 = a i duesma potenzzo


PRI TEMPO TI  KLOKO:

Qalemes, Qalklokes - to measure time

Qa-s kloko? Qakloke? Qera kloko tyem esta?  Qer-s kloko?

What time is it? 

Lo-s le trina. Lo-s le trinesma. Lo-s (le) trin-kloko  (P:  Lo-s (le) trinklo)

A qera kloko lo ariva le trayno? Qakloke?

Ma trayno ariva, farva (denparta) al (a le) zema. Or:  al zemesma. Or: al zem. - My train leaves at 

seven. 

06:05 = seu klokoy (ti) pen (minutoy), 06:25 = seu klokoy duto pen

07:30 = zem klokoy ti dufo. (ti hal(o)

01:15 = un kloko ti qarfo. ( penso minutoy pos le una. Qarfo pos le una.)

02:45 = du klokoy ti trin qarfoy. Qarfo kal trina. 

For ”half past” use: ti dufo or ti halo.

4 o´clock and a half (hour) - Qar klokoy ti dufo.

Le okesma antemeridye - prenune  - Eight a.m.

Le okesma posmeridye  - posnune  - Eight p. m.

Po esprives  dauro, se unta:  da ...  aste: Mi dormi dal un(a, -esma) astel seu(esma). Mi dormi 

dau(rem) pen klokoy. 

"Le" untatas cem po indikes kloko:  Tyem lo-s le qara. Le trayno farva a desto minutoy 

antem le oka. 

P: Be on time - VyenABLes kal tempo. VyenABLes preksem. 

qal+em+ijo = krono+metro

—————————————————————————————————————————————————————————

VOLTE 

volto time (in counting); occasion (repetition); turn (in series); singlavolte, cavolte every time (that), all the time, whenever; moltavolte:  many times, often (when), repeatedly; qermolte: how many times; poktavolte: sometimes; lo-s ma volto,  it is my turn; mi vira li du-volte, il monato: I see her twice a month. 

Exemplo: Hi  bemoda (modifa), sa voco, ti parola volte skalte volte dolte.

volto - occasion

volte- once

voltem - sometimes

algavolte - sometimes

cavolte -at all times, always

tavolte - at that time

enkevolte - once more

cavolte qem - when ever

duvolte - twice

renvolte - once again

adevolte - in addiction

—————————————————————————————————————————————————————————


—————————————————————————————————————————————————————————

AFIKSOY:


Prefiksoy:

alt(e)- reciprocally, alterene (bilateral) repruce: ALT-ames - to love each other, altevites - to avoid 

each other , altekonsiles

adve - in addition. adizze,  adves, adizzes, advedares - to add 

bau - (bauaga = from: balagan = bedlam, chaos, disorder)  bauferes - to make a mess

be- ( betrakt-es) As prefix with nouns and verbs. To treat (by) or supply with, provide with.

 - besemines - sow (a field) Used to mean that someone  or something is treated in a particular way. 

To coronate - be-krun-es ( like in Dutch: bekroning) bekruneso, bewail - bepyores,  bepanses - 

reflect, bekolor-es,  bekolores

Important:   be is used like ”ig” in Esperanto. Mi bexarpa ma kutijo. I make my knife sharp.

1. to couse to be. 2. Makes transitive verbs of intransitive.

bi- ( deprive, take away)  Spesyala prefikso kaus(ens)ativa ko signifo: deprive, to take away, make 

without, make opposite  - BIebles = be-des-ebl-es!

Important:   bi is used like opposite to ”ig” in Esperanto  (sen…igi)  Mi bixarpa ma kutijo. I 

make my knife blunt.

cirke - about (around) cirke, cirkey, cirke-mires, cirkeves, cirkevenges

cu - (cumode) in suspect way, secretive, not right. To creep down - cuves, to scrounge - cumendikes, 

cupides

da, dan-  from  danves -  to leave, sort-es

de, den- out of.  denves - to go out (desentres) sort-es de...

des(e)-  opposite: deskovres - discover, desavantajo -disavantage            

dis(e) - shows separation. disen-ves - to go in different directions, dise(n)voyo -road-fork

eu- (also: bun-) nice, positive, pleasant, cosy -  eulekta (eulektebla), cosy- euheyma, 

euaspekta - good-looking, bunaspekta

far-  (away!)  means removing, disappearing, distance, spoiling. farves - to go away, to leave, 

fardormes - to spoil time by sleeping, faresto - absence

fel-  mis-, mistaken, ill, wrong, incorrectly or negating. (mal-, eror-) felaudes, felmontajes, felado

fre- frequently, (freqe) freves, frevizites - frequently visit. (sometimes) 

fuy - moraly bad, shamefull - fuyvorto - a bad word

gau - (from: gawky) gaua , plumpa, stupida.  Gau-tono, gau-fal-es, gau-mir-es.

gran - intensive or emphatic (for verbs): granpides -beseech, granaprases- appreciate, appraise

ge- used with the plural to indicate both sexes together - mother and father - (ge)parentoy 

 ge- ”both sexes” -gedokteyo (school) go to bed with sy. - gekames 

hal- (half) marks also relative by marriage. (in-law- halparenta), halfrato 

halsurelo - sister in low, halfilo - son-in-law, haldotro -daughter-in-low.

in -  inves = entr-es, centr-es, invazo = inrush

kan-  kanves -to approach, kanvyenes = to arrive. (arives)

kom- to start something - hi komdikis - he has already started speaking. Hi kompludis - He has 

already started to play. ( Hi yus komi pludes)

om -  by (movement) evites - avoid), Verb: evites, beom-es, omveh-es,  Es:  hi omvis li cirke.

par-  break, cease - pares - PAR!  Hi parfalis (paris) sa storyo -She interrupted speaking her story. 

Parves! = Halt!  Par! - Stop!  Par! - Break! Mu parplanis - We have broken our plans.

per - to achieve something through - perfortes - to violate, to force

plonge-  (plilongem = plongem) further, still, longer in time. Holdes (rentyenes) -retain, (Retain your 

ticket, please. (Plis) Porfavore, plongeholdes Tua bilyeto. (Holdes tua bilyeto plongem.) Mi amo tu 

plongem astel morto.

P:  ker- to make something very carefully - kere, kertraktes - treat with tenderness

pro - proka (indicates a tendency toward what the root expresses, incline - inklino = disposition, 

tendency - tendezo - proko, kyero ka... ES: tolkative= profala, understanding = prokapa 


—————————

P:  qir- strange. Qirmires algono – look at someone in a strange way. To yelo qirgusta po mi – This 

food tastes strange for me. 


qal- means investigation, exploration, valuation, testing, study, checking, to ask about.

 For example: weigh - qal-vektes .(vektomeres) qalmeres algo - to measure something. 

Qallonges - measure the length. Qalverdes - investigate the truth.  Qalmondes - esplores mondo. 

Qalatlanges - study about Atlango

-------------------

bon- kinship by a second marriage:   bon-matro, bon-patro, bon-filo (halfilo)

zor- barely, difficult, zorves -  move with effort, hardly, barely (ni-).

 (Atento: not soft = harda. Not easy, difficult = zora, konzore = desfasile


————————————————— 

Sufiksoy: 


-abl-  capability: nemortabla - immortal, an instructive book - instruabla buko (instruara)

-ac-  disparagement: domaco - hovel, skritaces -to scrawl, popolaco - mob, t-on-ac-o -wretch 

(tono -this person)

-ad-  thing, something made of...: nuvado -a novelty, vajado, vajyelado -beef ), sokrado -a 

sweet.

-ag-  act, behave - konages - cooperate, renages -(renaktes) -react, ageso - action(s)

-ala-, -all, -arr  it denotes: relating to, appropriate to, pertaining to: roy-o - king -royala 

-royall, naturala

-augino -augo - pain - headache- kepaugino, (mi kepaugina), mi aug(in)a (a, da) - I have a pain... 

-and-  1. process or habitually prolonged action: - kyantando (songando)- singing, doktando -learning,  

               parolando, falando - a speech. 

           2. -and-es   from time to time  - pyorandes - cry, weep sometimes. From time to time.

( Hi vizitandi mu. - He visited us a great deal.  He continually paid visits.)

andes = to continue ! ande = drem-es + longe + repetide

-ary-  person who take care of something, occupied with something, who like 

something: sekretaryo -sekretary, bofaryo -kowboy (kawboyo = aryo di bofo), komisaryo (eno) -

commissar, farmer - farmaryo (farmisto) 

-atery- (more industrial and professional, factory.) oservateryo, sanateryo, baqateryo

-ayno-  a holder, sheath for the object described by the root: suord-ayno, pyed-ayno

-enzo  situENZo - situation  Es: okupenzo - occupation. Amenzo, sanenzo, malenzo

-ery - manufacture or a shop. baqeryo -bakery, kaferyo (kafeyo) -cafeteria, 

(administration) administ-eryo

-es+o  action. verbal noun.  pafeso – shooting, korseso - running,  askolteso - listening,  faleso - 

speaking 

-estr- chief, head: urbestro  = (town) mayor; postestro = postmaster; navyestro  

(ship's) captain. 

-et - little, diminutive: -homineto -little man , dormetes -to doze (also used for to make an 

intimate form)

-ex- portion, piece of , element, fragment:  aqexo - portion of water (some water) snovexo - a 

portion of snow, terdexo  - a portion of ground

-ezz-   abstract nouns: (-ness; -ity; -ship; -hood)  belezzo - (byuto) beauty, blankezzo- 

whiteness Also: with the meaning: simila:  enfezza konduto = enfosimila konduto, argila terdo (terdo 

de argilo) - argilezza terdo.

-ikul-  a very small particle of a whole: partikulo, aqikulo -drop of water, snovikulo -

snowflake, pyuvikulo -rain drop,  paunikulo – a crumb of a bread


-iny -  the suffix -iny- (for males and for females) make from the root an intimate 

form. (But also -et-) Yohano - Yohinyo, (also Yohaneto) patrinyo – dad, matrinyo – mum,

a shorter forms: p-inyo, m-inyo (papo, mamo)

frato – brother, herminyo – little brother (frateto, fratinyo, h-inyo, fr-inyo) or little sister (sureleto, 

surelinyo, sur-inyo)

-ist-, -alist- person habitualy occupied with something, proffesional, enthusiastic 

amateur, adherent.  polisisto -policeman (or woman), atlangisto -atlangist, laboristo -worker

(After ”i, y” - alist - nasiALISTo, P: nasi-aryo)

-itiso -  denote inflammation of an organ - (larynx - larinkso) larinksitiso - laryngitis 

-uy-   bokso, hod otra intyenijo. Container, receptacle, bokso, kapso, doso  (even book) 

cindruyo notuyo -notebook (kayerno) 

————— 

korilatezzay:

-er-  (korilat-vorto) collective, group: hominero -mankind, arbero (furesto) -wood, dyentero - (all 

your) teeth

-ey- (korilat-vorto) place allotted to or characterized by. kuqeyo, kukteyo -kitchen, kafeyo - café, 

cafeteria, yeleyo (yelorumo) -dining room.


—————————

personalay:

-ona person, animal or a thing with personal qualities: fripono -rascal , mentinono -liar, 

skyelskrapono - skyscraper. trinmastono - three masted ship       

Also a member - sozzi-ono, tim-ono

 Also a tree: - puarono -pear-tree (puar-arbo), pomono -appletree

-an Tano, male person /animal also male member or inhibitant, adherent

             hermano - (frato) brather, Europano, Amerikano, Kristano - Christian

-en- Teno, femENo, famale person /animal also famale member or inhibitant, adherent,  hermeno - 

(surelo) sister, kaveleno -mare, Europeno

-ofono  -speaker of a language (Atlangofono, Hispanofono, Germanofono)

-yano - husband, meryano, po esemplo: a husband of a princess - prinsesyano. 

-yeno - wife, meryeno, po esemplo: meryeno di geralo - geralyeno

——————————

gran -  emphatic-augmentative for verbs: grantokes - granfales - to speak intensively or with emphase.

-od -  augmentative: granoda = mega, - domodo - a big house, bunoda -excellent, pidodes = 

beseech.  Also for verbs: flamodes - ablaze

-ozyo - disease - tuberkulozyo, nervozyo 

-yosa -rich in, abundant,   pyuv-yosa -rainy. (maxanta, rika a (ko) pyuvo)

-um- 1. kemia elementoy (le subestanzzoy fundamentall qa bilda le Universo.)

Hidrogen - Hidrogenumo , Lithium - Litiumo, Helium - Heliumo. gold - aurumo, guldumo

2. a componet or constituent of a whole. Ingredients . - umoy - kekumoy -ingredients of a cake

3. P: a natural habitat, sphere of activity, environment. - Aqo esta elemento di fixoy. Aqumo.

4. Le sufikso um ne-x difinita signo. Pe to (perte) se fera vortoy, qa maxa alga rilato ka to, 

qo stara pre UM. Esemploy: plentUMes - fulfil, oklumes - jektes miro ka algono. Cerbumes ho 

kapumes - forte panses, proxume - cirke

P: -um- cloth (kleno - kostyumo) - esemple:   kepumo - hat



-----------------------

Instruments:

-oro

1. APARATORO  apparatus (like -ilo, -ijo )  televistoro, (televiro) komputoro (datoro)

2.  OPERATORO -oro - doktoro, dansoro, operatoro, animatoro, medyatoro, aviatoro

-atoro - (a thing) (agatoro) factor, agent - denominatoro  

-ataryo - (a person) (agataryo) amataryo, animataryo, medyataryo, aviataryo  

-il- tool, vehicle (mobile):  vehilo -vehicle,  flugilo - airplane, automobile - automobilo

-ij-  simple tool, instrument, means: perhande  untebla instrumento,  intyenijo - container, yelij(er)o -

cutlery, flamijoy - matches  (alumetoy), P: komputijo - smartphone, fonijo (Ay-fonijo?) skritijo - a pen

-----------------------

-ubo - TRUBO (trouble more colloquial) (P: elektrUBo = trouble with electricity. Trouble with 

money- munUBo, munubes) nervubo (nervotrubo)

-ubl- mublo - furniture, skritublo, bukubleto, sidelo - sidublo.

------------


-uj- (suja- dirty) reminder in pejorative -   besuja pe fango - fanguja

-ebl-  possibility (also: easy to…) eblezzo = ebla, portebla -portable, lektebla -legible, doktebla - easy 

to learn.

Se pyuvebla - It may rain. (se va pyuves) kapeble - of course  

-ady-   material: kreadyo, verkadyo,  pintadyo, pentradyo (paint) brenadyo - fuel,  bildadyo - 

building material 

-eska alike, (also about colours: guldeska, rujeska, blueska, oranjeska) pintureska - picturesque,  

(eskes - to be alike )

-eja (valeja) worthy of: ameja -loveable, ferEJa - worth doing, virEJa - worth seeing

- iv- 1. express by words or symbols or gesture. -  esprivo di jolo - jolivo, esprives tristezzo - tristives

- iv-  2.grammatical word.  Ex: Akuzativ

- io -  1. names of countries: Fransio -France, Italia, Italio -Italy   also 

2. system or domain: demokracy -demokratio, domain- dominio, dinastio - dinasty, prentio -press

3. -ia  - means also possession = Fransia - of France.)

4. -ia - language Le … ia.  Le Anglia (Angla), Le Italia

-yuno- (posono) the descendent of, or a young animal, or a plant.(enfo, posono): gatyuno - kitten, 

hundyuno - puppy. arbYUNo a apling, from a tree.

-inid-  (posono) the descendent of, or a young human - royINIDano -prinsano ho prinseno. 

Karolo - Karolposonoy, Karolinidoy = dinastio fondita per Karolo le Grana. Latininida lingvo, 

(lango), qa davyena de Latino. Esperantinida lango konstruita.

-------------------------------------------------------

Halsufiksoy: (Lu daba esti prezentita il ofizzyala vortero.)

ren-  repetition, again or return.  Give it back to me. - Dar mi to re, ren. (re+en)  = Rendares mi to.

Renvyenes, renves - To come back

-oy- 1. a special suffix to protect -if possible- from homonyms.  For example: -  antenna - (ant-

en-o) antenoyo, veranda - verandoyo

2. a special suffix to shorten long words: klosetoyo - kl-oyo, WC-o, ”loo".

(There are homonyms in Atlango too, as it is in all languages. For ex: in Esperanto: 

planeto - planet or plan-et-o  - a little plan.  But in this case in Atlango we have: Planeto 

- planet. In Atlango it is possible to avoid them also by using the suffix: 

-oyo) Es: planoyo. However sometimes the homonyms are even needed in literature and 

for jokes and games of words. 

For euphony and to avoid sound clusters especially between y and i it is possible to use suffix -

 -al-:  -al- nasialisto (nacionalist), teorialisto, historialisto

-em- 1. (korilat-vorto) (tempo) enfemo - childhood, i modernemo -in modern times (modernem), 

fyestemo - holidays, prosem -soon (kortem). ALSO: When we were going - we met him - Qem mu vi 

- mu trefis hi. V-em mu trefis hi. (Vengem mu trefis hi)

-em- 2. time. em-es = to spend a time doing something, to dedicate time to an activity, a 

process ( bepases tempo - temp-es)  lektEMes - to spend a time reading.

-eym - (korilat-vorto) aim, (intendo)  Qeymo di ta forsoy, pengoy, strivoy. The purpose of these 

efforts, struggles.  Why? Qeyme? Qende? For health purposes - San(id)eyme.

Also: Pronoun + -s…onta: mi-s keptonta -I am going to catch, mi esti keptonta-I was going to catch.

-er- (korilat-vorto) Quantity, amount: arbERo - forest, hominero -mankind.  Your age - Tua anyero. 

-------------------------------------------------------

va, vi, vo   Intention: I am going to.  - Mi va feres to.  I am going to read this book - Mi va lektes ta 

buko.   Mi vi feres to... We are going to go to... Mu va ves ka… or: Mu v-enda ka


BE, BI, - Transivity makers.

SEM, SIM, - Intransivity makers.

be+   transivity maker, spesyala prefikso neutrala ti kausativa. (to make clearer that a verb is transitive)  

Lo signa transitivezzo. (in Esperanto - IG) bepurges - clean, beebles - make possible, bekunes

bemortes - to kill


 bi+    transivity maker, spesyala prefikso kausativa ko signifo: deprive, to take away, make 

somebody without ... - BIebles.  Bivives - to kill

———————————————————————————

sim+   intransivity maker, spesyala prefikso kausativa ko signifo: get rid of, become without ...

 - SIMebles,

simvives - suicide  (?P: xi-)

semmortes - suicide (?P: xe-)


sem+   intransivity maker,  become, act of becoming, get (SESTES - become): sesto,  semjov(es)o -

becoming younger, semform(es)o = to form oneself, (like in Esperanto - igx-) refleksiva sufikso qa 

sirva po feres netransitivezzo dil verboy transitiva.)

Esemploy: mi semlava (mi lava mi), mi semmeryena, mi semmeryana !

——————————————————

afiksoy verbezzay:

am- , -am- (ames -to love, to like very much) I like to walk - mi promenama, I love to eat - mi 

yelama, amtuktes, am-ob-es - caress

-im - make decision to... (from: decIMes) I decided to do it - Mi ferimis to. They 

decided to eat it. - Lu yelimis to. She decided to study fiziko - Li studimis fiziko. She decides to go 

there. - Li v-ima tren.

-ax- poxa, maxa: barbaxa (with beard)  truvaxa, solaxa, sabaxa plajo (sabyosa, sab-rika)

-ab- (dabes -must) - Tu spektaba to -You must watch it.

-ed- (puedes -can)- estede (ke)- may be,- to pueda estes ke... -it may be that…I can do it - Mi fereda 

to. 

-ez- 1. (da le verbo dEZes -want - mo toje dal verbo tendezes ) -mi v-eza ten. (Mi veng-eza ten) - I 

want  to go there. Mi dankezu ka tu - I would like to thank to you.  

        2. -ez- also as: tendency - tendEZo, ( in teh same function as PRO+, ) disposition: kunprineza, 

kapeza -understanding, faleza, (plukfala -talkative)

-ob - (mobes - move ) - make a movement with. Make a gesture with. 

Briefly shut the eyes - Palpebrobi, kepobes = kepyeses - to nod by head , handobes - make a 

movement by hand. Manobes po (ka) - to reach with one ́s hand.   

-obl- ( obli - oblige, should, ought) -Mi ferobla to - I should do it.  

-------------------------------------------------------

Afiksoy propondata: P:


- ev-  to go towards something. Go to sleep - dormenves

ful- 1. amount. Es: handful of money - FULhando di muno, fulbrasoy di floroy, 

fulpokso di moneo, fulmaro di amo, fulfuresto di problem(at)oy, fulkepo di ideoy.

ful- 2. amount.  (satiated, to the full)  fulfil - fulferes, plentumi, Mi-s fuldormita.

prum-  (prumes) to try, Hi prumfera to - He is trying to do it. (Anke ne prumf(er)es to!)

vyol- violently, very intensively. violbatres = vambatres, violkorses = korsodes

ek- (-eklanko) sound of, resound, howl: mahineklanko - mahineko, gateklanko (mewing) gateko, 

vyenteklanko - vyenteko  -wailing of the wind , aqeko, sekneko di folyoy, pyoreko.

Atlango esta le lango beleklanka. (belsonida)

vam- to start action suddenly, also ironically. (vames -to start, burst with, into. VAM!)

vama - What a ruckus, tumult! Qezza vamo! (Prime amo - posem vamo.)

Pur-  (purmes) permit, allow, purmeso, Purprezentes mi. (Dar ka mi 

sem prezentes. - myself.


———————————————————————————


-iz-  organIZo - organization, to organize something (izes).  laboristizo - workers 

organization,  cooperative- kooperaktizo

-izm - (-alizmo) denotes a system, doctrine or belief: katolik-izmo = Catholicism; real-

izmo = realism. 

-aryat- institution, organisation, (ofizzo, kontoro) secretariat - sekret-aryato, 

komisaryato


P: -ifik- or -if- (to produce, to fabricate) martel-if(ik)-isto = hammer maker

or: -if(ik)-(to produce) - Es: flores , sem flores = flor-if-es, to bleed - sangifes (sangum-es)


-ublo - furniture (mublo) skritublo, bukublo, dormublo, klenublo - garde-robo


-umento  from: dokumento - a proof document. Identumento. Sanumento. Purmesumento. 

kofumento, xopumento,  pasumento, entrumento, naskumento (naskakto) 


P: (-ur result or product of action, expression: pikturo (piktado) -drawing, pinturo (pintado) - 

painting, nauzuro (=nauzIVo) -expression of disgust.)

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

SOME SPECIAL LANGUAGE FORMS IN ATLANGO: 

There are words with stress on the last syllable, which are ended by -all and even by -arr

Atento: le vorto finita pe -all-arr esta somtempe adyektivo ti adverbivo!-ALL,-ARR(of, relating to)

Por esemplo: toty/a/e -totyall´,  norm/a/e -normall´ (usual, usually)

skyel/a/e -skyelarr´,  sol/a/e- solarr´,  milit/a/e -militarr´

ATENTO: Ta formo (-all ) ( -arr ) untata-s  (esta untata)  solme pos subestansivoy ti spesye 

(spesyall) po stilistiko ti toje i letraturo.

Lo apera toje formoy: ala, ale, ara, are ! (normala, solara)

This special form is used sparingly and for stilistics only! Always AFTER a noun or a verb.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 

I poezio se pueda untes (unteda) le apostrofo za le (zal) subestansiva finado -o

Dom ́ , heym ́ , sol ́  (za, zam+,   instead)

Po eufonio (buneklanko ti fluventa pronunso) - vortoy i Atlango le plu freqe semfina pe vokaloy. 

A E I O U ho pe ”semi-vokaloy": M N R L W Y .

Toje lo-s vortoy ko finadoy: S, T, K, X. 

Po esemplo: ok - 8 ti interjektivoy (interjections) klik! -click! xx! hax! -hush! hup! -hop!

-------------------------------------------------------

pore- (something to be done, that must be done) poreferoy, payable- porepago (a) (fendABADoy)

pare- (to parry - parees) paresolo -parasol (solombrelo), parepyuvo = ombrelo (umbrella) 

porte- ( partial container) portevoco -spokesman,  porteovo (ovuyo) - egg cup  (porte-cindro)-ash-

tray,  porte-noto,  porte-muneto (porte-muno)

-------------------------------------------------------

Le verbo ESTES:

To be - estes. Mi esta - Mi-s - I am.

"Qes estes ho ne estes? (n-estes) To-s le frago." -To be or not to be? That is the question.”

"Qes es ho ne es?  Tezzol frago.” "Qes stes ho ne-s? To-s le frago."

Esta “is/am/are” is often contracted to -s  but only in the present tense.

Se purmesa formoy korta: (me solme i estantezzo) -s

Mi-s felica. I´m lucky. (In Atlango we use "-" to replace missing letters in contractions. )

Mu-s kontenta -We´re glad.

Lu ne-rika - Lu n-esta rika.   They´re not rich 

(Est)es = to be, ALSO: ES! = be!

I poezio mu unteda toje tezza pli korta formoy:   stes, sta ,sti, sto, stu...

------------------------------------------------------------------

The compound tenses with EST-  should not be used if the simple tenses suffice to show the meaning clearly.

------------------------------------------------------------------

It would be interesting to use -s after nouns in more advanced Atlango  

or even after adjectives:

 (In poetry?) My car is very big.  Ma auto-s molte grana. Or: Ma auto mlote grana-s.

 ------------------------------------------------------------------

 I korta sentenzzoy se faleda:

To-s kavelo - It`s a horse. To-s mi,  lo-s mi - It`s me.

Tro-s domo, qa-s  le plu skalta. -That is a house which is the highest. 

Qes tu-s foma?  (yeleza?) -Are you hungry? 


Retorical questions:

Qo-s? Qo lo-s? - What’s up? 

Qe-s? Qe lo-s? What is the situation? How things are?  Qe-s ko tu? = Qe lo-s ko tu? Qe tu-s?

Qes lo-s? Is there…?  Tey lo-s… There is...

Qes to tu?  = Qes to-s tu? Is it you?

Le verbo MAXES: (POXES)

Maxes - to have. Maxes is often contracted to -x in the present tense. (-x from a word: to have - maxes 

and to possess - poxes.)

Mi-x to - I have it. Mi ne-x to - I have not it.

Verb-ordo:

Il kezo qem alga neklarezzoy aperedu, se unta prel verbo le vorteto (montre- indikativa): to ho 

(impersonal):  lo ”it" (Po konstates alga fato - situenzo ) 

Esemploy:

To lokta un misteria homino i tra domo - ho: Lo lokta un misteria homino i tra domo. 

It was sunny yesterday - Timpe lo esti solarr. (sole)

Talking about distance:

"How far is it to London? It's 100 kilometers." - Qe longe lo-s ka Londono? Lo-s 100 kilometroy.

Mu pueda untes le helpoverbo LO  impersonal "there": Lo esta (Lo-s)

Talking that something exists in a particular place:

Esemploy:

Lo esto ( Lo-s) molta trafiko i ta urbo tompe (tomorrow). 

Lo estenta toje islo qa  numa le Islo Okesma. 

Lo ne-s pli di lakto pol kafo.

Lo estes!  Es! = Be! Let it be!


------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 

Le verbo Feres: - to make

We use its shorter forms: feres = fes,  fes! (do!) 

(As usually we use all short forms in Atlango very carefully!)

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 

Le verbo Venges = Ves: - to go  

We use its shorter forms: ves, vi, va, vo, ves! (go!) 

Instead of: venganta - venga, venge, vinta, vonta  etp.

Even: enves - to go to, instead of: envenges

Renves - go back. Come back! - Renvyen!

Mi vEZa - I want to go

Mi vABa - I must go

Mi vIMa - I take decision to go…

Mi vEBa - I need to go…   and so on.

den-v-es - to go out

in-v-es - to go in = entri

faren-v-es - go away

zorves, zorvenges (vaudes) - wade

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 


Pri transitiva ti netransitiva verbivoy.


Generale se faleda ke desestenta alga grana teorio pril transitivezzo. 

Se n-ebla  prefales lo, qa verboy esto transitiva ti qa esto netransitiva.


Tu unteda le vorteto BE+  (feres algezza) 

You can use the word  BE+ or  the verb: feres, fes

( Be+ (causative) to make a verb transitive. 

The word SEM+ (become, get) to make a verb intransitive.) 

Mo tu unteda to konfe le konteksto! 

But you can also use it with the context!

Intransitive verbs become causative simply by adding an object:

Mi moba - I move - Mi moba le sejo - I move the chair.

Also:  

Mi semmoba - Mi bemoba le sejo.


                 In Atlango verb transitivity (BE+) is also flexible and contextual. 


Verbs may be used as transitive or intransitive, if the meaning in that sentence is unequivocal. 

(An intransitive verb does not have an object. You can use it without having to add any more 

words to the sentence. A transitive verb must have an object.

Mi mobis foren,  ho: mi mobis foren le vehilo

Also: (to make it clearer) Mi semmobis  ho: mi bemobis foren le vehilo. 

Le aqo kukti ( the water was boiling) or: (I boiled some water) = mi kuktis pokter aqo. Mi bekuktis 

pokter aqo.

Importa:  SEM  - ta vorteto untata-s qe Esperanta ”igxi” (esemplo: Le dyemoy semlonga. Le dyemoy sesta longa)

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 

Formoy partisipa:

Partisipoy aktiva (aktivo)  semfina pe:  -inta, -anta, -onta

virinta -having seen

viranta - seeing

vironta - about to see

amanta - loving

amanto - one who is loving

ATENTES!

1. Notes, ke kol finado - o, le partisipo habe beskrita un persono bekarakterita pel ago dil partisipo.   

Notice that with the noun ending, the participle usually describes a person characterised by the 

action of the participle.

2. Mu pueda untes zal formo: virante - le formoy pli korta:  vir-e or: vir-em !

Esemplo: Do not allow your teen to drive while eating, drinking or talking on a cell phone.

Ne purmes ka tua S-anya autes yelante (yelem), (drinkante - drinkem) drink-e ho (parolante - 

parolem) parol-e il fonijo.

(pokte-S-anya,  es-anya -, desto-anya ... teen years old)


-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

Partisipoy pasiva:

Le partisipoy pasiva (finita-s) finaba pa: -ita, ata, ota

virita -seen

virata -being seen, amato - a loved one

virota - about to be seen, ferota laboro -Work that will be done

amato - one who is loved


 Esemploy:

Trovinte pomo, hi tom yelis.- Finding (having found) an apple, he ate it. 

But you can say: Trovem pomo, hi tom yelis.

Mi esta trovinto dil pomo.

Ma amata. Le amata mina. (Ma amo) - My love.

Pagonte hi vis (vengis) – He left before paying. 

Partisipoy pasiva (Pasivo) (Passive voice) i aktiva modo finita-s pe: -ita-s, ata-s, ota-s (uta-s) 

Atlango estis doktita pe (di) studantoy- Atlango doktita-s pe studantoy. 

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

Se pueda untes tojel (jel) formo: + est = Atlango doktestis pe studantoy, Atlango doktesta pe 

studantoy.


------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Konparelativoy:

--------------------------------------------------------------------

(PLUKE - too much - plukemolte, pluke)

--------------------------------------------------------------------

PLU,  makse, (maksemum(e) - most – P:  isma (belisma)

(le) plu Es:  (le)  Plu bela 


PLi - more  +

----------------------

    ------- PLO - more or less  -EGALE ( plomolta) ----------

----------------------

PLe- less    


PLA 

least, minimum(e) (minimume),  (le) pla Es:  (le)  pla bela  –P: asma (belasma)

--------------------------------------------------------------------

PLAKE - too little 

--------------------------------------------------------------------


molte rapide -very fast,  pli rapide -faster, (le)plu rapide -the fastest

(Se pueda untes: makse rapida ho rapida maksemume - rapidisma)

ple rapida -slower. pla rapida -slowest -rapidasma

(Se toje unteda: (le) minimume rapida)

pli qe, pli da -more than (pli molte, qe, da)

Pli bela da hi -  Pli bela qe hi = Pli bela daqe hi = More beautiful than he.

daqe – (in Esperanto:  ol)

————————————————————————————

PLONGE(m) -  further  (in Esperanto:  plu)  

Po esemplo: ne plonge = ne pli longem - no longer

plonges - plonge restes i alga stenso: le turpa meteo (klimo) plonga.

beplonga - Plonge feres - Hi beplonges le laboreso. (bedaures, kontines)      

———————————------------------------------------------------------------------------------

THE...... THE..... - QE...... TE..... the more the better - qe pli molte, te pli bune 

Also correct: Ya plu molte, DO(KE) betre.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Week days - Dyemoy dil zemango (viko): 

Monday -       Lundo , on Monday - Lundyem, Lunde

Tuesday -       Mardo, Mardyem

Wednesday -  Sredo, Sredyem

Thursday -     Jodo, Jodyem

Friday -          Frado, Fradyem

Saturday -      Sabdo, Sabdyem

Sunday -        Soldo, Soldyem

weekend - vikendo, So-dyemoy (Sabd-Sol-dyemoy)

Lo-s lundo tampe - tampo -today (P: adyem)

Lo esti soldo timpe - timpo -yesterday (P: idyem)

Lo esto mardo tompe -tomorrow (P: odyem)

Le artiklivo LE untatas po indikes le dyemo (le jorno) dil monato. (monato = month)

Mi sem naskis al zema di Aprilyo. Tampe lo-s le pena di Marto

————————————————————————————————————————

In Atlango there are reduplicated forms which increase the intensity and also its expressiveness.

Poresemple:

molmolte, volvolte, plenplenta, belbela, finfine

————————————————————————————————————————

Lektante ti konparelante le seqa tekstoy Tu  simple kapeda ke Atlango sta l lango 

skaltagrade koncisa ti eufonia.

Le difersa  konpareloy:


Esperanto (1889)

Multaj el ĉiuj tiuj junaj kaj maljunaj idealistoj, kiuj aliĝis al Esperanto jam dum siaj unuaj jaroj kaj 

esperis ĝian tujan enkondukon en ĉiujn lernejojn, baldaŭ estis seniluziigitaj.

ATLANGO (2019)

Molta de cal idealistoy jova ti olda, qay semkanis ka Esperanto drem sa primanyoy ti esperi sa bliksa 

 indukto i ca skoloy, kortem semdisapondis.

Interlingua (1951)

Multos de omne le idealistas juvene e vetere, qui adhereva a Esperanto jam durante su prime annos e 

sperava su introduction immediate in omne scholas, tosto esseva disillusionate.

In Swedish

Många av alla de unga och gamla idealister, som anslöt sig till Esperanto redan under dess första år 

och hoppades på dess omedelbara införande i alla skolor, blev snart besvikna.

-------------------------

Esperanto   Prenu ĉiujn tiujn kiujn vi volos kaj lasu ĉiujn tiujn kiuj ne plaĉos al vi.

Atlango       Prin ta cay, qam tu dezo ti les ta cay qam tu ne kyera.

Ido               Prenez ti omna, quin vu volos, e lasez ti omna, qui ne plezos a vu.

English       Take all those, which you want, and leave all those, which you don't like.

—————————————

Esperanto:  Ĉu ŝi ĉiam ruĝiĝas ĉe ĉio?  (tongue twister)

Atlango:     Qes li cem(e) sem ruja a co?

—————————————

Esperanto:  Ĝis revido! — li ekkriis.  (tongue twister)

Atlango:     Astevire! – hi klamis.

—————————————


Esperanto:  La malbela majlunulino mallaute malfermis la pordon al sia kelo kaj malrapide    malsupreniris la stuparon.

Atlango: Le turpa oldeno pyane abris le pordo ka sa kelo ti lenke deskendi le stupero. 

Ido:         La leda oldino silence apertis la pordo a sua kelero e lente decensis l´eskalero.

English:  The ugly old woman quietly opened the door to her basement and slowly descended the stairs.

——————————————————


Suplementa tekstoy i ANGLA,  ATLANGO,  ESPERANTO,  IDO, OCCIDENTAL,  NOVIAL,

  LATINO SINE FLEXIONE  ti  INTERLINGUA:

ENGLISH

The idea of a world literature, which Herder and Goethe conceived essentialy from the point of view of art, has now gained even greater importance from the point of view of science. For, of the things that mankind possesses in common, nothing is so truly universal and international as science. Now al communication and propogation of science uses the means supplied by language, and so the internationality of science irresistably demands the internationality of language. If we consider that today numerous scientific works, particularly textbooks, are translated into twelve or more foreign languages, then we understand what an immense quantity of labour could be saved, if everywhere on the globe books could be as generaly understood as, for example, musical notes or tables of logarithms.

ATLANGO

Le ideo pri letraturo mondall, qam Herder ti Goethe konseptis cefe del virpunto dil arto, akiris tyem del virpunto dil xenzo anke pli grana importo. Bo del kosadoy, qam le hominero poxa komune,no-s te verde universall ti internasiall qel xenzo. Mo ca komunikeso ti propageso dil xenzo unta moyo dil lango ti do internasiezzo dil xenzo nerezisteble postula internasiezzo dil lango. Ya mu koncidos, ke tampe molter xenza verkoy, spesye doktobukoy, translangata-s i duso ho pli di alya langoy, do mu kapos, qer grana qantero di laboro sparit-edus, ya bukoy ceymonde kapat-edu te generale qe esemple muziknotoy ho logaritma tabeloy.

ESPERANTO (The accented letter is followed by an x in this text.)

La ideo pri mondliteraturo, kiun Herder kaj Goethe konceptis cxefe el la vidpunkto de la arto, akiris nun el la vidpunkto de la scienco multe pli gravan signifon. Cxar el la komunaj posedajxoj de la homaro, neniu estas tiel vere gxenerala kaj internacia kiel la scienco. Sed cxiu komunikado kaj disvastigado de la scienco uzas la helpilon de la lingvo kaj tial la internacieco de la scienco nerezisteble postulas la internaciecon de la lingvo. Se ni konsideras, ke nuntempe kelkaj sciencaj verkoj, precipe lernolibroj, estas tradukitaj en dek du au pli da fremdaj lingvoj, tiam ni komprenas, kiom granda kvanto da laboro povus esti sxparata, se libroj cxie en la mondo povus esti tiel gxenerale komprenataj kiel ekzemple la muziknotoj aux logaritmaj tabeloj.  

IDO

La ideo pri mondo-literaturo, quan Herder e Goethe konceptis esence del vidpunto dil arto, ganis nun del vidpunto dil cienco mem plu granda importo. Nam del kozi, quin la homaro posedas komune, nula es tam vere universala ed internaciona kam la cienco. Or, omna komunikado e propogado dil cienco uzas la moyeno dil linguo, do la internacioneso dil cienco postulas nerezisteble la internacioneso dil linguo. Se ni konsideras, ke cadie sat multa ciencala verki, specale lernolibri, tradukesas aden dekedu o plu multa stranjera lingui, ni komprenas, qua enorma quanteso de laboro povus sparesar, se libri omnaloke sur la terglobo povus komprenesar tam generale, kam exemple muzikal noti o logaritmala tabeli.

OCCIDENTAL

Li idé pri mund-literature, quel Herder e Goethe hat conceptet esentialmen ex li vidpunctu del arte, ha nu ganat ancor mult plu grand importantie ex li vidpunctu del scientie. Nam de omni comun possedages del homanité niun es tam vermen general e international, quam scientie. me omni comunication e transmediation del scientie usa li medie del lingue. Do li internationalità del scientie ínresistibilmen postula li internationalità del lingue. Si noi considera, que hodie pluri sciential ovres, specialmen libres de aprension, trova se traductet in decidu o plu foren lingues, tande noi comprende quel immens quantità de labor on vell economisar, si on vell posser comprender libres partú sur li glob sam generalmen quam por exemples notes e tabelles de logaritmes.

NOVIAL

Li idee pri monde-literature, kel Herder e Goethe koncepted esentialim fro li vidpunctu del arte, ha nun ganat mem multim plu grand importanteso fro li vidpunctu del scientie. Den ek li coses kel li homaro posese comunim, nuli es tam verim general e international kam li scientie. Or omni comunico e mediatione del scientie usa li moyene del lingue, dunke li internationaleso del scientie demanda nonresistablim li internationaleso del lingue. Si nus considera ke disdi pluri sciential verkes, particularim lernolibres, es traductet en dekdu e plu multi stranjeri lingues, tand nus comprenda qui imensi quanteso de laboro povud bli sparat, si libres povud omnilok sur li globe bli comprendat tam generalim kam exemplim musical notes o tabeles de logaritmes.

LATINO SINE FLEXIONE (INTERLINGUA)

Idea de literatura mundiale, que Herder et Goethe habe intellecto præcipue ex puncto de visu de arte, habe hodie acquisito, ex puncto de visu de scientia, sensu etiam majore. Nam, de commune possesiones de genere humano, nihil es tam generale et internationale quam scientia. Sed omne communicatione et propogatione de scientia ute auxilio de lingua, et ita internationalitate de scientia postula in modo irresistibile internationalitate de lingua. Si nos considera, que hodie plure opere scientifico, in particulare tractatus, es translato in duodecim vel plus lingua extero, tunc nos cognosce quale immane mole de labore pote es præservato, si libros, ubicumque in terra, pote es æqualiter intellecto in generale, sicut per exemplo notas musicale aut tabulas de logarithmos.

INTERLINGUA / IALA

Le idea de literatura mundial que Herder e Goethe concipeva essentialmente ex li puncto de vista del arte, ha nunc ganate ancora multo plus grande importantia ex li puncto de vista del scientia. Nam de omne commun possessiones del humanitate necun es tam vermente general e international quam le scientia. Sed omne communication e propagation del scientia usa le medio del lingua. Tunc le internationalitate del scientia irresistibilemente postula le internationalitate del lingua. Si nos considera, que hodie plure obras scientific, specialmente libros de insenio, se trova traducite in dece-duo o plus linguas estranie tunc nos comprende qual immense quantitate de labor on economisarea, si on poterea tanto generalmente comprender libros ubicumque apud le globo como assi notas musical o tabulas de logarithmos.

———————————————————————

Tey mi prezenta le soma teksto translangita ka difersa langoy konstruita. 


Volapük   (M. Schleyer, 1879)

Söls palestimöl!

Elilädob in gased zifa olsik das nedols konodeli sevöl, plä bukamav, Flentänapüki e Volapük. Jabedob 

sevis pevipöl e sikodo sumob libi lofön oles dünis obik plo cäl vagik.


ESPERANTO   (L. Zamenhof, 1887)

Altestimataj sinjoroj!

En la gazeto de via urbo mi legis, ke vi serĉas kontoriston, kiu konas krom la librotenado ankaŭ  la 

francan kaj Esperanton. Mi posedas la deziratajn konojn, kaj pro tio mi prenas la liberecon prezenti al vi 

miajn servojn por la vakanta ofico.


ATLANGO   (R.A Antonius 2019)

Prionoy!

Il jornalo di Tua urbo mi lektis, ke tu triba kontoristo, qi kuna adve registrago toje le fransia ti Atlango. 

Mi-x ta dezirata kunoy, ti po to mi prina le liberezzo Tun prezentes ma sirvoy pol vakanta postino.


IDO (L. Couturat, 1907)

Altestimata Siori!

En la jurnalo di via urbo me lektis, ke vi bezonas kontoristo qua ultre la registrago savas la franca ed Ido. 

Me posedas la dezirata konocaji, e pro to me prenas la libereso prizentar a vi mea servi por la vakanta 

ofico.


LATINO SINE FLEXIONE (G. Peano, 1903)

Honoratissimo dominos!

In diurnale de Vestro urbe, me habe lecto quod Vos indige uno computatore qui ultra mercatura librario 

cognosce français et Latino sine Flexione. Mi posside scientia desiderato, ergo me prehende libertate de 

praesenta ad Vos meo servitio pro officio vacante.


OCCIDENTAL-INTERLINGUE (E. de Wahl, 1922)

Altestimat Seniores!

En li gazette de vor cité yo ha leet que vu besona un contorist quel ultra li tenida de libres conosse 

frances e Occidental. Yo possede li desirat conossenties, e pro to yo prende li libertá presentar vós mi 

servicies por li vacant officie.


NOVIAL (O. Jespersen, 1928)

Estimatissime Seniores!

In li jurnale de vusen urbo me ha lekte, ke vus bezona un kontoriste kel ulter libreteno konosa fransum e 

Novial. Me posese li desirat savos, e pro tum me prenda li libereso tu presenta a vus men servo por li 

vakant ofisie.


INTERLINGUA (A. Gode, 1951)

Estimatissima Seniores!

In le jornal de vostre urbe io ha legite que vos besonia un commisso que ultra le tenantie de libros etiam 

cognosce le linguas francase e Interlingua. Io possede le desiderate cognoscentias e pro illo io prende 

me le libertate de presentar mi servicios pro iste officio, si ancora vacante.


 

Ne olves informes  conoy tua amikoy pe ta sayto!

Qono dokto Atlango, ta aprasos ta lango! 

Mi invita Tu po feres linkoy ka ta sayto Atlanga.

——————————————————

Kamboy:

(Versio kol kamboy:ADY,PADI,Igi,max-i,pro qo,anke,bau-,bay-,LI-TONO,bres!Bre-,drem,xi-6,-r - va, ki - zam au!-eym ki, ti- zam - ki, zam revo-sogno,toje, zam vido - vuaro,visto, duem, volto. dodi -od-,dunke, exemplo,ji,ept,-ind-i,-ec.ki pri,pyovi,dau,daur-i,lokt-i,naubo,za padi= pabi,kosado, za ady =ado,ak-i = get,ge,sonto, sfenti, vuero, fuego, lazza, kfenke, yeno, agi, andi,vit-i,pri - za xe, primera, oklo, peyore, plando, kloko, malga,algino, rovi,rekfesi, valejo,-ej, pren, ploy, vasta, frenze, ren-, varti, lenke, bordo, yel-i, gelba, geti, albo, albusko, arb-i, xe - pe. pa ,perisi, paxi, syem, suenti,gi, snovo, fau- fel- sueloy, zem, pelmo, sorina, mankfo, piro, fliko, pueno, gria, hal-, korilati, ri, tira, steri, do, dari, cepa, 6-seu, koso, kutimo Ku- velti, kulbi, avoydi, num, retre, kepo, kapi, re, viaho, ki, naudi, gemi, lengi, kia aperi, jasi, zolvi, sti, pretindi, -ind-, saja, stensi, lokfi, eventi, zendi, dusto, -ero,aryo, des+i, nu-, ve! varda, verio, tempudo, nau, nul-, numo, aryum-i ko, auest+es, au, kf-,numbro, ye, pe -ed, ti +es)spedes,zzi,prumbes, +ub, milo, +uel+, vedes, draumo, pres, ju, od, edes, uska, ind, ploke dres, pres freke, Q pronounce: KF,ibl  ute, -eft, volto = exo

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