gramatiko


GRAMATIKO ATLANGA.

(10.XII.2018)


Gramatiko di Atlango esta molte simpla:

Pronunso i Atlango:

VOWELS. The vowels of the alphabet are pronounced as follows:

a as in English: far.  e as in fiancé, like a in fate.  i as in machineo as in tollforu as in ruderural.

CONSONANTS. The consonants  bdfhklmnptvw, are pronounced as in English, and the 

remaining as follows:

c like ch in much.

g like g in go

as in  German and Scotch ch, Spanish j, Irish gh, Polish ch 

j like in French and in English: z in azure,  s in visual.  OR: j like in English  jar. (dj)

( dj like English J (John)-  if needed)

q as KF  like in kvetch, kvetcher

y like y in yesbeyond.

r is slightly trilled or rolled. (like in Spanish, Italian, Polish, Russian.)

s like s in seebasis.

x like sh in shine, ch in machine. (I Atlango:  exemplo, xautes- shout, xenzo -science)

w like English w 

zz like ts in pizza, tsetse, tsar

DIPHTHONGS.

Diphthongs are combinations of two vowels uttered as a single sound, by one breath-impulse. 

Their pronunciation is as follows:

ay like ai in aisleey like ei in veiney in theyoy like oi in coinoy in boyuy like ui in ruinu(e)y in gluey.

ua ue - w-a, w-e, eu like ayw in wayward, or like é(h)oo pronounced together.  au like ou in out , uo like w 


Le alfabeto Atlanga konsista de 27 letroy. 

I Atlango ne estenta spesya letroy ko supersignoy ki to-s i Esperanto. 

 

Numoy: 

versio 1. a bo co do(djo) e fo go ho i jo ko lo mo no o po qo(kfo) ro so to u vo wo xo yo zo zoo 

2. a be ce de (dje)e fe ge he i je ka  el(e) em(e) en(e) o pe qo(kfo) er(e) es(e) te u ve ew(e) xe ye ze zze 

 

Such a forms like -ia, -io, are pronounced as iya, iyo. (Fransio, Polonio, Germanio.)  

(The forms eu, au -(ne-utra, a-uto, a-utoro) can be also pronounced as: ew, aw (newtra, awto, awtoro))

Stress falls most often on the second-last syllable. Le aksento makse (le plu) freqe fala suren le 

prefina silabo. 

Po exemplo: AtlAngo, capElo (-in english: hat), lAngo -(in english: language) dOmoy

 (houses), fEmoy (women).

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ATENTO: Also such a words as:  pOkter, Algem, dAurem, (ect. - ttp. - ti te pren). 

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There are words with stress on the last syllable, which are ended by -all and even by -arr

Atento: le vorto finita pe -all, -arr esta somtempe adyektivo ti adverbivo!-ALL,-ARR(of, relating to)

Por exemplo: totya/e -totyall,  norma/e -normall (usual, usually)

skyela/e -skyelarr,  sola/e- solarr,  milita/e -militarr

ATENTO: Ta formo (-all ) ( -arr ) untata-s  (esta untata)  solme pos subestansivoy ti spesye 

(spesyall) po stilistiko ti toje i letraturo.

Lo apera toje formoy: ala, ale, ara, are 

This special form is used sparingly and for stilistics only! Always AFTER a noun or a verb.

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I poezio se paba untes (untaba) le apostrofo za le (zal) subestansiva finado -o

Dom ́ , heym ́ , sol ́  (za, zam+,   instead)

Po eufonio (euklango ti fluventa pronunso) - vortoy i Atlango le plu freqe finensa pe vokaloy. 

A E I O U ho pe ”semivokaloy": M N R L W Y .

Toje lo-s vortoy ko finadoy: S, T, K, X. 

Po exemplo: ok - 8 ti interjektivoy (interjections) klik! -click! xx! hax! -hush! hup! -hop!

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Subestansivo (substantive) maxa (has) le finado - O,  suaro - evening (in French: soir) islo -in 

English: island, terdo -in English: earth, ( in German: erde, in Spanish: tierra.) numo -name, viro, 

homano - man (a male person), femo, homeno -woman, hermeno - sister, frato (hermano) - brother,  

pueno, joveno - girl, koro - heart, albo - tree,  arbo - decision. (arb-es - to take a decision)


Plurivo (the plurals) maxa le finado - OY , (som(e) qe i Esperanto - ”oj”) homoy, hominoy (popolo) 

- people, piratoy - pirates,  klaudoy - clouds,  garsoy - boys

Adyektivo  maxa le finado - A  bona - good, bela - (in French: belle) beautiful, rapa, rapida - fast, 

intresa, intresenda -interesting, nuva -new (in French: nouveau)

(Koncerne kal adyektivoy dusilaba finensanta pe M N R L W Y- (po exemplo: grana - big,

mala -bad) - se untaba le formoy pli korta: gran, mal, bon. (I ta formo eufoniall ta vortoy esta 

somtempe adyektivoy ti adverbivoy!)

Adjectives  must not agree with nouns and they very seldom, when needed, take the plural 

ending -y.

Atento: Le Verday -The Greens (Le Grinay)


Adverbivo maxa le finado -E.  Fare, diste -far away, lenke -slowly, prokse -near, fore- in front of

And also:  le finadoy ”korilativa”:  -el -em, -en, -er, -ey.

Infinitivo: 

Infinitivo maxa le finado -ES

(Le finado ES maxa toje Imperativo!)

estes (short form - economy of expression!) :  -s) -to be, 

maxes (short form:  -x (from: maXes and poXes) - to have, to possess. 

v(ant)es - to go ( VI) (ves - to go, go!)

fendes  (suffix:  -END-) - to make  (Esp: ig)

fenses   (suffix:  -ENS-) - to make oneself (Esp: igx)

dares -(suffix: -AR-) give (also:  permission, to allow someone to do something)

debes (suffix:  -EB-)- must 

pabes (suffix:  -AB-) -can 

dezes (suffix:  -EZ-) -want 

tribes (suffix:  -IB-) - need

akes (acquire = akires) (suffix:  -AK-) - receive, get

dikes  - to speak  

sombles -to seem, 

prines -to take, 

vedes - to see

mires - to look

kyantes (songes) - to sing 

skrites - to write, 

dres - pull

puxes - push

pyens(es) -  think

Mi vedi, kel joveno korsi. =  Mi vedi le joveno korsanta – I see the girl running. (P: Mi vedi le 

joveno korsem.)

Le konvyeno (konvento) sombla estes yu finita.

Lo-s fasile kritikes, me lo-s zore fendes. – It is easy to criticize, but it is hard to work. 

Il situdo qem  infinitivo koma sentenzo mu paba preseqendes le infinitivo pel vortulo: ”po”!)

Po kyantes lo-s ne fasile - It is not easy to sing.

Po trefabes (pabes trefes) tu,  to-s ma draumo. (draumo, dyemdrimo - daydream)

Lo-s ne fasile kyantes.

Mi dezi edes to - I wanted to eat it. (Mi edeza to = mi tom edeza.)

Mi konsilu ka tu (po) lektes ta buko. Mi tun konsilu lektes ta buko.

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A , ad - as indefinit preposition. (Like ”je” in Esperanto.) a le = al,  au+

auestes = to be present at, when)

He took her by the hand - Hi prinis li a le mano. (al mano OR: aumane.)

Glaso di vino to-s glaso plenta a (di) vino.  (Plentita auvine)

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Le matro fendis le rumo a purga. ( Le matro purgendis le rumo.)

Se numis li a Rozo. 

Conoy titolis hi a profesoro, me posem hi montrensis (estes) a simpla instruisto. 

Se konsideris ta difekto totye sinsigna. 

Hayses le rumo a varma!

The house by the river - Le domo al flumo. Le domo aufluma.

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YE (about)  QANTERO:

Atento: Q is pronounced as: KF !

how  many? Qer,  Lom qer di pauno tu deza? = Qe grana qanterom di pauno tu 

deza? = Qer tu deza di pauno?)  Di nutrifo mu maxa (mu-x) tere (qer)(ki) mu triba. 

( Lom nutrifo mu-x.)

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TEMPOY

Lom tempoy (tempivoy) ti modoy (modivoy) mu krea pe preseqendo le verbo pe persona 

pronumo ho korilativa vortetoy ti toje pe adizzo dil finado tempall ho modall:

Paxintemo (Estintemo, Timpo)- I.  Mi vanti, (mi vi) I went, mu skriti -we wrote, lu dormi- they sleep

Estantemo (Tampo)- A.  Tu dika -you are saying, li lekta -she is reading

Futuro  (Estontemo, Tompo)- O.  Tono vedo - hi, she, it will see

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LE FORMO PERFEKTA:

The perfect aspect (solme ya to-s nezzesa!) formita-s pel finadoy: 

-I+S , -O+S, -U+S

(But only for Paxintemo, Futuro and Konda modo!)

Mu ne unta le formo perfekta il infinitivo! -ES

                                   Also sudden and momentary action!

Po exemplo: mi skritiS - I have (already) written, (Mi (yu) skritis) I had written. Mi

 vediS hi - I have seen him. Mi finos to - I will have finished it. Lu komkorsis -

They have (already) started to run. Hi yu morti - or: Hi mortis. – He has died. (Atento: 

Hi morti = hi esti mortanta. – He was dying.)

Qono  lerno Atlango,  tono  aprasos ta lango.

1. Atento: Il modo imperativa (ti Infinitiva) (-ES) le -S esta cem (always) sul fino.

2. Atento: le finadoy -iS, oS, uS (pli forta signalo di perfekta modo) untata-s

 solme ya to nezzesa! Zam le finado -S se untaba solme votreto YU.

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Imperativo -ES  (ENS)

Mu fendes to! -Lets (we) do it ! Ves!- go! Vyen! - come! Vames! (Vam! Ves!-Let ́s go!

For!  Foren! - Forwards!   Far! Faren! - Away!

Ti yal eufonia situdo purmesa - mu untaba korta, unsilaba imperativoy:

Dar! (dares!) -  Give!  Mir! - Look! Prin! (Get!) - Get!  Max! -Have! Var! ( vartes!) -Wait!  Ves! 

- Go! ( vantes!) E toje (je): Dikes! - Dik! -Say! Ek! -Listen!  Es! Estes! -Be! Ens!-Become! Ben! -

Bless! (Es benita!)  Pyens! (pyenses! - Think!) Stop! -Stop! Korses! Kors! -Run! Kom! -Begin! 

Plis far!(ves) - Please, go away.  (Plis) Porfavore, ne ves - Please, do not go. 

Also:  Estens, Ens! (estenses!) -Become! (with a suffix -ens- (make yourself, himself))

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LAS:

Qezze le imperativo se paba untes jel (toje le) vorteto: LAS. (Lases!)  

Let him go! - Las hi va! Hi ves! P: Hi van (vantes)!

Las mu fenda to! -Lets (we) do it ! Las mu va! - go!) Las to-s… Las lo-s - Let it be...

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KE SOLME ho MEY:

You can also use: Ke solme… (if only) or:  Mey… (may)

May you be happy - Ke solme tu-s felisa.    or:   Mey tu-s felisa!

May it be!- Ke solme! Mey! Oha-la! (in Spanish: ojalá!

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Subyuntiva formo - subjunctive form:

Mi prega, ke hi vyenes. – I ask that he comes.

Mi dezira ke tu estos  re (denuve)  sana (sanida). – I wish you to get healthy again. 

Mi bringis (kanportis) le buko, po ke tom (tu) lektes.– I brought the book for you to read.

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In indirect speech Atlango uses "ke …  +es" after verbs such as: want, wish, order, advise, tell

 etc. where English uses the infinitive.

Mi deza ke tu ves ka Fransio  -    I want you to go to France.

Mi ordesis ke hi ves hejmen    -    I ordered him to go home.

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Konda modo (kondivo)

The conditional is formed by: - U   Lu bildu (konstruktu) - They would construct

The conditional perfect is formed by: - US   Lu bildus (konstruktus)  - They would have constructed

( If he would run, we would catch him - Ya hi korsu(s), mu him keptu(s).)

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Persona pronumoy. 

MI- I 

TU- you  (also plural form)  

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TO, (TADO) - it ,   (This - TA) - objects, things

TONO - objects and persons, TENO - female person, TANO -masculine person.

ZZI - TONO (teno ti tano) - she, he  (P: person gender neutral) 

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(LO -  dummy subject.)

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HI - he 

LI - she 

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MU -we 

TU -  you (in plural)

LU - they (TONOY and TADOY (things))

Refleksivo:

SE - English equivalent for”one” and oneself

1. Nepersona  (e refleksiva pronumo):

SE  ( UNO - one, (they, some people, also: UNAY))

Se kuna nem - One never knows. Matine unay esta dormeza. Suare se-s lazza. 

You don´t have to go - Se ne veba. (Se ne deba v(ant)es), That is not known - Se ne kuna to. 

Such houses are not built any more - Se ne pren bilda tezza domoy, bildadoy.

Mi audi goso (klaco), ke…  = I heard a rumor that…

As refleksive pronaun is translated: herself, himself, itself, themselves and oneself.

Lu kumbi se - Lu sem kumbi  = They brushed their hair. 

Hi lavi le enfo ti posem se(se sel)  =  He washed the child and then himself.

2. Nepersona pronumo: LO ( -impersonal "it", dummy subject, grammatical subject, fact, 

situation.

 The dummy pronoun LO:

1. Lo refers to an indeterminate object - to a fact, action or situation rather than to a thing: 

Prin(es) ta pomo, mi dezira lo, Take this apple, I desire it (= I desire you to do so )

2. Lo as an impersonal "it" with adjectives: it's cold - Lo-s kolde (frige)

3. Lo as an impersonal "it" with verbs:

Lo pyova - it rains - it is raining. (You can also say: se pyova.)

Lo-s le qina -It ́s five o ́clock

Lo esto Serdo tompe - It will be Wednesday tomorrow.


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For euphonious purposes or to avoid misunderstandings between pronouns we can add - e -. 

For  example: mi, li, hi to = emi, eli, ehi, eto - ti - mu, lu = emu, elu -we, - e - se = ese - self.

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sel(a) - self. po exemplo: Tu sel lektes - Lek to sel! Read (for) yourself. Mi sel tom fendis -I 

have made it myself. (mi fendis to sel) selstansa - independent (sindependa) Tyem le royo sel 

vedezi to.

Nepersona pronumo: se (situation, state - when there is no visible subject )

Po exemplo: Se dika - They speak. Algono (uno) pyensa - se pyensa - One thinks

Se diktes qom se deza. - Let people say what they like . (Las se dika qom se deza)

Tu trompa tu sel!

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Le difinita artiklivo - LE

Le is used before any noun which refers to something or someone that has been mentioned earlier.

Use LE where you could just as well use TA or TRA. 

Untes LE qey tu simple egalbone untaba TA ho TRA.

People for whom use of the article offers difficulties (e.g. speakers of Chinese, Russian, Polish,) may at first elect not to use it at all.

le urbo - the town, 

le Verday -The Greens ( le Grinay)

ley Smith, ley Jackson

Article LE are usually dropped in headlines. Exemple: ( ”NUVA KLENOY DIL ROYANO.”)

I pronunso, letraturo ti poezio se unta formoy pli korta:

dil o di-l = di le, del o de-l = de le, kal -ka le,  kil -ki le, po - pol, sul - su le, il = i le, 

sobrel - sobre le, konfe le - konfel… etp.

di le popolo- dil popol ́, ( dil popol ́) de le domo- del dom ́, (ka le skolo - kal skol ́

Ho simple ne untes ta artiklivo!   di popol ́, de dom ́


Nedifinita artiklivo desta (ne estenta) i Atlango me Tu untaba : un, uno 


TABELO DI PRONUMOY ADYEKTIVA TI POXIVA:

Di qa? Qia? - Whose - KIA

Emfatikivoy  (Le ….  + NA)

ma- my                                    Emfatika:  le … mina

mua -our                                  Emfatika:  le … muna

tua - your, yours                      Emfatika:   le  … tuna

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P: zza (gender neutral)          Emfatika:  le  … zzina

tona- her, his, its - tada          Emfatika:  le  … tona, tada)

Also: tia (di to = t-ia              Emfatika:  le  … tia)                    

(persons, animals and objects)

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ha- his                                       Emfatika:  le  … hina

la- her                                        Emfatika:  le  … lina

lua -(their)                                 Emfatika:  le  … luna

(to -this, it)  tia, tada,  - its)

Refleksiva pronumo:  

sa - one`s                                   Emfatika:  le  … sena

Adyektiva pronumoy:

(Lom le adyektiva pronumoy: mua, tua, lua - mu paba pronunses ki: "mwa, twa, lwa”!  Me prefe i 

poezio) 

Atento: Le formo lingvall (le … -a) untatas spareze ti po stilistiko.

This special form in Atlango is used sparingly and for stilistics only!

Po exemplo:

Hi ne intresi yel saudatoy sena

Qia to-s domo? ( Also: Qia-s domo?)

To-s le domo mina

Mi fate ne kuna kia (qia) to-s kulpo.

Qono jola ye algia desfeliso, tono ne restos sin puno.

I Atlango: To-s alga innuvado, ye kia acepto se deba binkonsiles.

(In Esperanto: Ĝi estas ia ennovaĵo, pri kies akceptado oni devas konsiliĝi.)

Deklino di subestansivoy:

Genetivo: di - le lango di le (dil) totya hominero - the language of the whole humanity.

Ex: Le skyelo esta di blua koloro. (Le skyelo esta bluaya, ho maxa blua koloro.)

Dativo: ka  (kan+) le purto - to the harbour

Lo-s toje tezza dativa formoy korta: ka mi - min, ka tu- tun, ka hi- hin, etc.

Ex: Nu, dares to ka mi! - Nu, dar´ to min! - Well now, give it to me!

Sing it for me - Kyant(es) min to. (Kyantes to po mi)

Atento: Mu toje kortenda Ka aste k´.  Exemplo: Mi dezira ka tu le somo. = Mi dezira k tu le somo. 

Dar to ka mi! = Dar to k mi. Hi proksensis ka mu = Hi proksensis k mu.  Come to me! - Vyen k mi! 

(Prounanced as: ktu, kmi, kmu, (as in Russian))

Akusativo: - m, lom

Mi veda le domo, - me: (inverted sentence structure: - mi le domom veda - or: Lom le domo mi 

veda. 

Autom mi kofis - or: Lom auto mi kofis. A car bought I. Mi ama tu - I love you me : Tum mi ama. 

(Lom Tu mi ama)

Hi skrita intresenda nuveloy, - me: (inverted sentence structure: - Lom intresenda nuveloy hi skrita.

I alga okazo (plurivo!)  se untaba akuzativa partikulo - lom

Yago lom drakoy - hunting for drakes. (Yago kontre drakoy. Yago a drakoy. Yago po drakoy.)

Direction:

You can use: le korilativa vortuleto -EN to show MOTION TOWARDS: 

Let’s go to the house - Mu ves (vantes) kal domo. OR: Mu ves domEN. Enves! - Come in!  

ATENTO: (In this case do not use ” le ”!) 

Put it outside the house -Pondes to uten. (Pon ́ to utey!) 

Put it there - Pon to tren.

Vokativo: (He!) (hello man! - he, homino! )

Vokativoy Atlanga. Interjections:

Well!  well now! - Bon! Vam! O-key!

ahoy!   - He-hoy! He! 

alas! alack!  - He-las!  He-lak! - Vanide! Grete, Greteje, Triste.

hello!  - He-lo! Saluto! He! Hay, Hey!

WoW! - He-la!  Wau!

Lo-s makse importa pronumoy:

1. Le pronumoy untita za subestansivoy: - o  (Pos lu freke alga verbo segva )

PERSONO:

qono?-who? which, (also relative for person) algono -someone, tono -this person, trono-that person, 

cono -everybody. nono -nobody

Some  (indeterminate) - Nalga, Nalgono. 

Pluriva formo:

qonoy?  tonoy, tronoy, conoy, algonoy, nonoy

NEPERSONO:

qo? -what? (also relative for things) algo - something, to -this, tro -that, co -all, no - nothing 

Qo to esta? (Qo-s to?)What is this? Qo eventis? -What has happened?  Qo eventos? -What will 

happen? 

To (lo) eventos. - It will happen.

Pluriva formo:

qoy?  toy, troy, coy, algoy, noy (nadoy)

We can also use more eufonious and emphatic form:  qado? -what a thing? tado - that thing, 

nado - no thing,  cado - everything, all

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Atento: Le prenumo Lo (dummy subject) presegva verboy i renverta ordino:

There is a mistery island. Lo-s alga misteria islo. (P: L-esta alga…)

2. Le pronumoy adyektiva ti distributiva: -a

qa? -who, which, which one? (also relative for both person and things) alga -some, any, certain, ta -

this one  tra -that one, ca - each, every (distributive), na - nothing

Pluriva formo:

qay?  tay, tray, cay, algay, nay

Qa evento? -What a event? Ta evento - This event. Qa to esta? (Qa to-s?, Qa-s to? -Which is it?

Conoy (collectively) paroli ti ca (distributively) i sa lango. - Everyone spoke and each in his own

 language. Or: Conoy paroli ti (me) cono i sa lango.

Demonstrative: to, tono, ta, tra (this, that, this one)

It is possible to use as a relative pronoun WHICH  =  KI (also for plural form)

EX: Mi dikis kal hominoy (onoy) (qay) ki paroli.

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Qalitezzo:

Le qalitezza pronumoy adyektiva: -ezza

qezza?-what kind? algezza-some kind of, tezza-such a, cezza -every kind of,  in this way - te, ta-

mode, in such a way: tezze, tezzamode.


Atlanga korilativoy (ye situdo e tempo): e, ey, em, er, en, el 


MODO (modeEo) manner - E  

QE? -how , ALGE - samehow, TE - in this way, TRE - in that way, CE - in every way, NE - no, in no

 way ( ne = neu!, Oh ne!)

LOKEYO place - ey  

QEY? - where? ALGEY - somewhere, TEY - here, TREY - there, CEY- everywhere, NEY - nowhere.

TEMPO  time - em    

QEM? - When? ALGEM -anytime, TEM - now (tyem), TREM - then,  do, CEM -always, NEM - never.

QANTERO quantity, group,- er  

QER? - How much? ALGER - some quantity,  TER - so many,  TRER ---, CER - the whole quantity, 

NER - none.

DIREKSO direction - en  

QEN? - Where to? ALGEN - somewhere (to), TEN - in this direction, TREN- in that direction, CEN - 

in all directions, NEN - in no direction.

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KAUS(EL)O cause  - el

QEL?   Qakause?  Why?

ALGEL Algakause  for some reason, 

TEL    - Takause - so, for this, 

TREL - Trakause - for that reason, 

CEL   -  Cakause - for every reason, 

NEL   - Nakause  - for no reason.

----------------------------------------------------------

POSSESION (poxo, maxo)  - ia

QIA? - whose? Kia - whose, ALGIA - someone’s,  TIA - this one’s,  TRIA - that one’s, CIA - 

everyone’s,  NIA - nobody’s.

Qalga -whichever , qalgo, qalgado -whatever, qalgono - whoever, qalgem -whatever time, qalgia -

anyone’s,  ce - ca-mode, in every way, however, nevertheless

Qaya? - In which color, nuance, aspect? Naya- colorless, Caya - moltekolora. ( cayensi - to become 

in multicolors?)

Skyelarkaya - in rainbows colors

QANYe? - In which year? Canye - every year. Tanye - this year, Tranye - last year. (paxintanye)

Atento:

Solme le korilativa vorteto ”ey”(loko) funka qezze sindependa sufikso ti prinaba le finado -o

 Exemple: kokteyo - kitchen

Le korilativo ”em” esta le sufikso "hala" ti do (doke) lo esteba prezentita il vortero!

Exemple: estontemo - future (futuro), adolescence - jovemo. (Me ne:  problemo, femo.)


(Pli grana tabelo dil korilativoy esta sul advepagino KORILATIVOY.) 


-------------------------------------------------------

Rilata pronumo: 

1. P: Rilata pronumo universall:  KI - KIM  ( ki le = kil)

ki - as, who, which, that, like, just, because of, (qo+m, qono+m, qa+m, qe, te, )

Exemploy:

Li pinti ki (qe) vuera pintisto.  She painted like a real painter.
Yohano (Djon) nauda ki (qe) fixo.   John swims like a fish.

-------

Adamo esta te (ki) grana ki (qa) Nilso.  Adam is as big as Nils.
Mi-x duvolte plier mono ki (da) Oskaro.  I have twice as much money as Oskar.

-------

Ves ka hi ki-s (qa-s) trey, ti qestes pol voyo.      Go to him who is over there, and ask for the way.

———

BUT:

Hi labori qezze instruisto.  He worked, as a teacher.

Qezze programisto hi ne suksidis.    As a programmer he had no success.

-------

Le televistoro, kim (qam)  mi kofis, esta molte bona.      The TV set, which I bought, is very good. 

Le homino kim tu vedi timpe, tu trefaba tampe. = Lom homino qam tu vedi… or: Le homino vedita-s 

pe tu timpe,  trefabata-s pe tu tampe.  

-------

Kil elektro paris (parensis), lu ne koktabi kafo.   As the power went, they could not cook coffee.

Ki (solme) mu entris le dezerto, le aqo finis.     Just as we walked into the desert, the water went out.

Kil plaudo finis, lo kompyovis.                            Just as the game ended, it started raining.

Ki mi denvi (desentri), (do) le mobijo fonis.        As I was leaving, the phone rang.

Le rezulto n-esti te mala qe (ki) mi esperi. The results were not as bad as I had expected.

-------

Ki (Qezze) mi lengi!           As I've longed!
Ki (Qezze) li falti tu!      As she has missed you!
Ki kortem ki eble. (Te kortem qe eble)   As soon as possible. (Swedish: Så snart som möjligt)

-------

Mi helpezi kal pueno kia ( di qa) ombrelo kleptita-s.  I wanted to help the girl whose umbrella got 

stolen.

Le enfoy kia kristnaska giftoy rompita-s fensis trista.  The children whose Christmas presents got 

broken became sad.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

2. Korilativa rilata pronumo:  QA -which, which one, who (qono)

Qa homino esta makse (le plu) prokse(y)? Which man is nearest ?

Le homino, qa (qono, ki) trey stara - That man, who is standing there.

Qa libro esta intresenda? - Which one (of these) books is interesting?

Ta, qa-x (ki-x) molte piktadoy. -This one, which has many pictures. 

She´s the person which I love - Li-s le persono kim mi ama.  (Li-s le persono qam mi ama. Or: Li-s le 

persono lom qa mi ama.)

-----------------

do, doke, dokem -so, then

Tem , qem - Tem, do…(dokem) / Tem, qe.../

tyem - now

un, una, uno -(alga, algono) - one, certain

Otra vortoy importa:

Tezzo! Tezze! - voila! (Vo-la!) Vamo!  Tezzo-s… Tey-s...

to... to... Alterne alga situdo ti otra, alga evento ti otra: to marxante, to korsante hi vyenis kal

 domo.


Qi ? - interrogative particle ( in Esperanto: cxu?)

yes -yes

ne, (neu) - no, not  (in no way - na-mode) 

Prefixes and prepositions:

nekue,   ne… nekue…  - nor,  neither … nor.  Mi ne fuma nekue (mi) unta alkoholo.

Nekue timpe nekue tampe mi akis brifo. 

ni - (ne totye, ne totyagrade) not completely, not wholly

te - so (in this way- ta-mode )

ti - and, (I Atlango mu unta toje le vorteto: kay - qezze adva ho pli forta ”ti”, more like ”too”, ”ti 

toje” or:  ti je)

toje, je - also (je le = jel)

kan+ (as PREFIX) ka (as PREPOSITON)  (ka le = kal)

inse -  into, ( insel = inse le)

ye, (sobre) - about (ye le = yel) Lo temata ye… = To yesta...

po, (po ke) , por+ (as PREFIX), in order to (po le = pol)

pe,  per+   by

ri, rin+ (rilate ka) relating to  (-all, -arr)

da, dan+  from  (also: because of, reason )

si, sin+ -without

aste -till, until (aste le = astel, astem, astey)

de, den+ - out of, (de le = del)

i , in+   in (i le = il)

a, au+ - at, by

a (ad)  (as indef.prepn. like in Esperanto - je) To-s plenta ad aqo. (Also: To-s plenta di aqo. To-s 

plenta da aqo.)          

kortem - soon 

pre, antey - before, in front of (fronte di)

pre, antem - before in time 

ju, yustem, ju pax, yustem pax - just a moment ago

pos, pose, posem, pos tem (in time) -after (desfronte di, posey)  bakem - back in time

enke- still, yet

re, denuve (danuve) - again, once again, (enkevolte, renvolte)  de komo - denkome. 

(Ex: To renesta tey. - It is here again.)

daurem, dau, interem, inem - during, while  

————————

tempo - time

tampe, P: adyem - today

timpe,  P: idyem - yesterday

tompe, P: odyem - tomorrow

————————

Seasons of the year:

spring - springo, springEMo 

summer - verno, vernEMo

autumn, fall - otuno, otunEMo

winter - vintro, vintrEMo

————————

ya - if   

yu - already  

yo, fate - indeed - (verie, porverie, verifate) 

yuste - just

yustem - just now, (akuratem, yustyem = yuste tyem) ju

prekortem, antekortem, kortem pax  (a moment ago) - antem

yustey - just here

inte, inter+,  between

ke  -for, that

solme -only

me -but

ambe- both

otra - another

zora, zore   difficult

zor(e) -(ni) konpenge  -  barely 

bo, po to ke, takause ke,  P: boke -  because

om - by (movement) eves - avoid), Verb: eves, omENDes

ho (hod) - or

ko, kon+, - with, together (kone ko) Verb:  konendes, konens(es)

dis(e) -dispersal, separation. Verb:  disendes, disens(es)

sub(e) -under    Verb:  subendes, subens

ve, ver+ -through,  Verb:  verendes, verens ve

pluke -too much  ( super-)  Verb:  plukendes

trans(e) - behind, to the other side   Verb:  transendes, transens, transenves

ute - outside, beyond,  utey - outside, go outside - vi uten, ut-en-v-es, utem - out of time

iney, insey - inside   Verb:  in(s)endes, in(s)ens

su, sur+, (su le = sul) - on    Verb:  surendes, surens

molte, mol - a lot of, much,  mol = very,   very much = mol molte,  molte

pokte - a few (a small number of)  

mikre - (desmolte) (adv.) - little  Verb:  mikrendes, mikrens

plus, pluse ( otraparte, sobre to, pluse to, adve to) - moreover, except, apart from

pokta -some,  - pokte, pokter, pokto di...

prefe - rather

za, zam+, zame, -instead  Za riposes, hi labori. Za ves heymen, li vis kafeyen. 

P: xley -in different places

raptem - suddenly, (raptyem), (raptey - very near)

rape, raptem -  suddenly

blikse,  tuy -  immediately, Bliks! Tuy!

bliksey - very near (in place) -  tuy a, tuy ka

far - away

within - iney

qezze, qe (kaze) - as , as if,  

kaze   Verb:  kazendes, kazens. 

doke - however.  (To-s verio, me… ), Lo pyova -  me doke mu ves. 

kuenke (kuen) - although

di -(also follows expressions of quantity, weight, mesure.) (plier) pli di aqo - more water, plenta di 

vino.

de, den+ from, also: of, fendita de, kreita de ( krugo de metalo)  also: krugo metall, krugo denmetala,

Verb:  denendes, denens, denvi

da, dan+  from  Verb:  danendes, danens(es), danves

————————

as (being)  qezze,  (as an expert she knows = qezze spertisto li kuna. 

Hi qezze prezidento eleksis hi po sekretaryono. Hi trakti hi a venkinto. 

Or:  qezze - as (being) to be, in the character, quality of.  Qezze exemplo - as being an 

example.

              Mi, qezze prezidento, eleksis hi (po)a Viceprezidento. 

             

-------------------------

Prol eufonio mu untaba "e" sul fino di tezza vortoy. Po exemplo: pax - paxe, pos - pose 


Pokta importa verb(iv)oy:

answer (reply) respond-es, (resp-es), repl-es, P: re(spon)d-es = red-es. Redes ma qestoy!

appear - aperes

appear (look) - aspektes

appear as (seem) - sombles 

arrive - arivi,  (come) vyenes

ask (question) - qest-es

be -estes,  -s

born be- naskes, (to give a birth -bortes)

bring  - bringes, adveportes, kanportes, P: feces

build  - bildes, konstruktes.

buy  - kofes, xopes

concern  (relate to) - konsernes,  rilati pe, ka,   ri

congratulate - grates, kongrates 

continue - daur (em)-es, kontin-es

cook - koktes, 

desire dezires

disappear - desaperes , P: farperes

drink - drinkes

eat  -edes, -EDo (breakfest = matinEDo, dinner = dyemEDo, supper = suarEDo)

fly - fluges

give - dares -   suffix: -AR- (dares signaloy = signal-AR-es )

greet - salutes

intend (going to) - intentes , va (I am going to watch this film - Mi va mires ta filmo.)

kiss - beses

know (be acquainted with) - kunes, kuneses

know (by learning) - kunes (kunABes)

lead (guide) - gvides

let - las, lases 

like - pyases

listen - ekes

love - ames

look at - mires

make (something) fendes,  -END-

need potrib-es, tribes -IB-. Po exemplo: Ne dankibe = Lo ne-s (po)tribo a dankes.

be necessary - estes nezzesa

pray (communicate with God) - pregves.

prefer - prefes.

prepare - prepares

propose - propondes

put (on something) - pondes, plases

save (from danger) - salves

save (on computer) - sav-es , seyves )

say -dikes 

search for - xerkes

smile - smiles

guard - gardes

happen - eventes -evento

have - maxes (to possess - poxes, -x)

hear - audes

help - helpes, aydes

hold - holdes, kontyenes, inmaxes

hope - esperes

joke - jokes

keep - tyenes, holdes

stand, be - stares, stanses

take - prines

talk (able to speak a language) langes, paroles

talk (conversation)  konverzes, loqes, interloqes, interparoles

tell (say) - dikes

tell a story - kentes

thank - dankes

try -  prumbes, PRUM-

use - untes

want - dezes -EZ-

watch on - spektes

work - labores

understand -  kapes, kunprines

------------------------------------------------------- 

 

NUMBROY, SIFROY:

0 -nol(o) (zero) 1 un(o)    2 du    3 trin    4 qar    5 qin    6 seu   7 zem    8 ok    9 nau  10 dyes(o) 

 ( dyes-ti ) or ( dyeS  -S- )

11 dyes-ti -un (UNSO (-S- )), 12 dyes-ti -du (DUSO), 13 dyes-ti-trin (TRINSO), 14 dyes-ti-qar

(QARSO), 15 dyes-ti-qin (QINSO) 16 dyes-ti-seu (SEUSO), 17 dyes-ti-zem (ZEMSO), 

18 dyes-ti-ok (OKSO), 19 dyes-ti-nau (NAUSO)  

pokte-S-anya,  es-anya -, dyes-ti-anya ... teen years old

dozen = DUSO

 (ti-dyes) or (-T-) 

duto -20, trinto -30, qarto -40 qinto, -50 seuto -60, zemto -70, okto - 80 (okedyeso) nauto -90

or:

dudyes-20, trindyes-30, qardyes-40, qindyes-50, seudyes -60, zemdyes -70,ok(e)dyes

- 80, naudyes -90    

22 - dudyes-ti-du, 33 - trindyes-ti-trin ….

cento - 100  

centemo = zerzeremo (..00 centanyo)

mil(o), (tausento) - 1000, 

miliongo -1 000 000  

miliardo- 1 000 000 000

1947 - mil naucento kuarto zem. (un nau qar zem, nauso-qarto zem))

1968 - mil naucento seuto ok (dyes-ti-nau seudyes-ti-ok) (nauSo seuToOk) 

2002 - dumilo du

2013 - dumilo trinsa (duto trins(o))

2017 - dumilo zemso

2018 - dumilo oks(o) 

As in English, numbers may be given out by naming the digits only: 

2018 - du nul(zero) un ok

1300 - un trin zer-zero


Adjektivoy numerall:

-esm- or -a  first - unesma, una (prima), the 8th -okesma, the 80th -le oktesma ho le 

okedyesesma, the12th -le dusa, le dusesma

Multiple: -opl-

duople -double , qarople -fourfold

Collective numeral: -ale, -all

unale, unall -one by one, qaralo -quartet, qezze-l dualo = duale = duall -  i grupo di du.

duale, duall,  by twos, in pairs. (parel-mode) tausale, taus(ent)all, by thousands,  qarale, qarall, 

by fours.

okalendes, to form into groups of eight.

Le QINALO (qino) di musikantoy plaudi il salongo. 

Fraction: 

-parto -(e)frakso ho -f- 

dufrakso (halo) -half, 1/2,(dufo)

trinfrakso 1/3 (trinfo) , qarefrakso 1/4 (qarfo), seufrakso - sixth 1/6 (seufo), 1/10 dyesefrakso

 = dyesfo, centefrakso 1/100 (centofo), 3/4 trin-qarfo, 5/6 qin-seufo

Numbers can take an adverbial ending:

une-(prime, P: primere) firstly; in the first place - unall

due- secondly; in the second place - duall

trine, qare, qine, seue, zeme, oke, naue, dyese...

OR:

Collective numeral - PO(r) - at the rate of, so many at a time. 

Po un(e), po due, po trine, po qare, po qine, po seue, po zeme, po oke, po naue, po dyese.

lu drinki po un glaso -they drank one glass each 

mi lekti le buko i ca dyemo po qar ( qare) paginoy. 

Le drapo kosti po 2 dolaroy pormetre.

Lu akis po qin pomoy. = Lu akis 5 pomoy po ca. = Ca de lu rezzeptis (akis) 5 pomoy.

1. Mu vehi po qinto (qinedyes) kilometroy ca dyemo.

3. Mu vehi kuinto di kliometroy ca-dyeme.

Aritmetika kalkoloy:

Adizzo: (Addition) 12 + 10 = 22 dyeso-du plus (P: adve) dyeso  esta  duto-du 

Subetraho: (subtraction) 21 - 3 = 18 duto-un minus  trin esta  dyeso-ok

Moltoplendo: (voltendo)  (multiplication) 3 x 8 = 24 trin ople ok,  ho trin moltoplendata 

pe ok, esta  duto-qar 

Divando: (division) 69 : 3 = 23 seuto-nau su (divita pa, ve(r) ) trin esta (egala) duto-trin

a2 = a qadra (qadrata) o a2 = a i duesma potenzo


YE TEMPO TI KLOKO:

Qalemes, Qalklokes - to measure time

Qa kloko-s? Qakloke? Qera kloko tyem esta?  Qer-s kloko?

What time is it? 

Lo-s le trina. Lo-s le trinesma. Lo-s (le) trin-kloko  (P:  Lo-s (le) trinklo)

A qera kloko lo ariva le trayno? Qakloke?

Ma trayno ariva, farva (denparta) al (a le) zema. Or:  al zemesma. Or: al zem. - My train leaves at 

seven. 

06:05 = seu klokoy (ti) qin (minutoy), 06:25 = seu klokoy duto qin

07:30 = zem klokoy e dufo. (ti hal(o)

01:15 = un kloko ti qarfo. ( qinso minutoy pos le una. Qarfo pos le una.)

02:45 = du klokoy ti trin qarfoy. Qarfo kal trina. 

For ”half past” use: ti dufo or ti halo.

4 o´clock and a half (hour) - Qar klokoy ti dufo.

Le okesma antemeridye - prenune  - Eight a.m.

Le okesma posmeridye  - posnune  - Eight p. m.

Po esprivi  dauro, se unta:  da ...  aste: Mi dormi dal un(a, -esma) astel seu(esma). Mi dormi dau(rem) 

qin klokoy. 

"Le" untatas cem po indikes kloko:  Tyem lo-s le qara. Le trayno farva (farenvos) dyes minutoy 

antem le oka. 

P: Be on time - VyenABLes kal tempo. VyenABLes preksem. 

qal+em+ijo = krono+metro

—————————————————————————————————————————————————————————

VOLTE

volto time (in counting); occasion (repetition); turn (in series); singlavolte, cavolte: every time (that), all the time, whenever; moltavolte: many times, often (when), repeatedly; qermolte: how many times; poktavolte: sometimes; lo-s ma volto: it is my turn; mi veda li du-volte il monato: I see her twice a month. 

volto - occasion

volte - once

voltem - sometimes

algavolte(m) - sometimes

cavolte -at all times, always

enkevolte - once more

cavolte qem - when ever

duvolte - twice

re volto, renvolte - once again

adevolte

—————————————————————————————————————————————————————————

AFIKSOY:

Prefiksoy:

Qal- means investigation, exploration, valuation, testing, study, checking, to ask about.

 For example: weigh - qal-vektes .(vektomenzes) qalmenzes algo - to measure something. 

Qallonges - measure the length. Qalveries - investigate the truth.  Qalmondes - esplores mondo. 

Qalatlanges - study about Atlango

adve - in addition. adizze,  adves, adizzes, advedares - to add 

bau - (bauaga = from: blagan = bedlam, chaos, disorder)  baufendes - to make a mess

be- ( betrakt-es) As prefix with nouns and verbs. To treat or supply with, provide with.

 - besemines - sow (a field) Used to mean that someone  or something is treated in a particular way. 

To coronate - be-krun-es ( like in Dutch: bekroning) bewail - bepyores, bepyenses - reflect, 

bekolor-es = kolorend-es

bin- reciprocally (bilateral) repruce: binames - to love each other, bineves - to avoid each other 

par-  break, cease - pares - PAR!  Hi pardikis (paris) sa storyo -She interrupted speaking her story. 

Parves! = Halt!  Par! - Stop!  Par! - Break! Mu parplandis - We have broken our plans.

ci, cirke-,  - about (around) cirke, cirkey, cirke-mires, cirkeves, cirvantes, cirves

da, dan- - from  danves -  to leave,

de, den-, out of.  denves - to go out (desentres)

des(e)-  opposite: deskovres - discover, desavantajo -disavantage            

dis(e)  - shows separation. disen-ves - to go in different directions, dise(n)voyo -road-fork

eu- (also: bon-) nice, positive, pleasant, cosy -  eulekta (eulektebla), cosy- euheyma, 

euaspekta - good-looking

far-  (away!)  means removing, disappearing, distance, spoiling. farves - to go away, to leave, 

fardormes - to spoil time by sleeping, faresto - absence

fre- frequently, (freqe) freves, frevizites - frequently visit. (sometimes) 

fuy - moraly bad, shamefull - fuyvorto - a bad word

ge- used with the plural to indicate both sexes together - mother and father - (ge)parentoy 

(genitoroy) ge- ”both sexes” - gelerneyo (school) go to bed with sy. - gekames 

gran - intensive or emphatic (for verbs): granpreges -beseech, granaprases- appreciate, appraise

in -  inves, invazo = inrush

inse, insen-  - (entre) into, ves inse - insenves - to go into (entri inse), vehes insel urbo. (vehes urben)

kan-  kanves -to approach, kanvyenes = to arrive. (arives)

kom- to start something - hi komdikis - he has already started speaking. Hi komplaudis - He has 

already started to play. ( Hi yu komis plaudes)

fel-  mis-, mistaken, ill, wrong, incorrectly or negating. (mal-, eror-) felaudes, felmuntes, felado

nul  - (Solme ko subestansivoy. Instead of long forms: sin...endes, sin…ens(es)) Take off, to deprive -  

nulkepes algono (sinkependes) - decapitate - behead,  nulaqes (sinaqendes), take off 

obstacles - nulstakles, nultrubes, nulzores -plifasilendes,  nules - to get rid of

per - to achieve something through - perfortes - to violate, to force

pren-  further, still, longer in time. Holdes (rentyenes) -retain, (Retain your ticket, please. (Plis) 

Porfavore, prenholdes Tua bilyeto. (Holdes tua bilyeto pren.) Mi prenamo tu astel morto.

sti- kinship by a second marriage:   sti-matro, sti-patro, sti-filo (halfilo)

hal- (half) marks also relative by marriage. (in-law- halparenta), halfrato 

halsurelo - sister in low, halfilo - son-in-law, haldotro -daughter-in-low.

zor- barely, difficult, zorves -  move with effort, hardly, barely (ni-).

 (Atento: not soft = harda. Not easy, difficult = zora, konzore = desfasile


————————————————— 

Sufiksoy: 

-ac-  disparagement: domaco - hovel, skritaces -to scrawl, popolaco - mob, t-on-ac-o -wretch 

(tono -this person)

-ad-  thing, something made of...: nuvado -a novelty, vaxado, vaxedado -beef ), sokrado -a 

sweet.

-ag-  act, behave - konages - cooperate, reages -(reaktes) -react, agando - action(s)

-ayoaya  - color, color nuance or aspect di… 

zebraya pyelo,  tigraya pyelo, pyelayo - nuance of skin, marayo -sea color, flamaya - in color of

 flames , brick-coloured - brikaya, Qaya? - In which color, nuance? Naya- colorless, (sinaya - 

sinkolora) Caya - moltaya - moltekolora,  somaya - in the same colour, turpaya - in ugly colours. 

-ala-, -all, -arr  it denotes: relating to, appropriate to, pertaining to: roy-o - king -royala 

-royall, naturala

-and-  (agand-es) 1. continual action, process also habitually: - kyantando (songando)- 

singing, lernando -learning,  parolando - a speech. Ando di lerno - a prosess of learning.

    2. -andi -   (ande) from time to time, process: - pyorandes - cry, weep sometimes. 

( Hi vizitandi mu. - He visited us a great deal.  Hi ande viziti.  - He continually paid visits. Hi andis vizites - he kept on visiting.)

-ary-  person who take care of something, occupied with something, who like 

something: sekretaryo -sekretary, vaxaryo -kowboy (kawboyo = aryo di vaxo), komisaryo (eno) -

commissar, farmer - farmaryo (farmisto) - aryum-es - to deal with

-estr- chief, head: urbestro  = (town) mayor; postestro = postmaster; navyestro  

(ship's) captain. 

-et - little )diminutive: -homineto -little man , dormetes -to doze (also used for to make an 

intimate form)

-ery - manufacture or a shop. bagveryo -bakery, kaferyo (kafeyo) -cafeteria, 

(administration) administ-eryo

- atery- (more industrial and professional, factory.) oservateryo, sanateryo, bagvateryo

-ezz  abstract nouns: (-ness; -ity; -ship; -hood)  belezzo - (byuto) beauty, blankezzo- 

whiteness Also: with the meaning: simila:  enfezza konduto = enfosimila konduto, argila terdo (terdo 

de argilo) - argilezza terdo.

-iny -  the suffix -iny- (for males and for females) make from the root an intimate 

form. (But also -et-)

Yohano - Yohinyo, (also Yohaneto) patrinyo – dad, matrinyo – mum,

a shorter forms: p-inyo, m-inyo

frato – brother, herminyo – little brother (frateto, fratinyo, h-inyo, fr-inyo) or little sister (sureleto, 

surelinyo, sur-inyo)

-ist-, -alist- person habitualy occupied with something, proffesional, enthusiastic 

amateur, adherent.  polisisto -policeman (or woman), atlangisto -atlangist, laboristo -worker

(After ”i, y” - alist - nasiALISTo, P: nasi-aryo)

----------

-er-  (korilat-vorto) collective, group: hominero -mankind, albero (furesto) -wood, dyentero - (all 

your) teeth

-ey- (korilat-vorto) place allotted to or characterized by. kokteyo -kitchen, kafeyo - café, cafeteria,

edeyo (edrumo) -dining room.


P: -ev   to avoid, evi,  veh-ev-es, tref-ev-es, kontakt-eves - to avoid a contact - eves kontakto 

-------------------

-ona person, animal or a thing with personal qualities: fripono -rascal , mentinono -liar, 

skyelskrapono - skyscraper. trinmastono - three masted ship       

Also a member - sosi-ono, tim-ono, erono.

 Also a tree: - puarono -pear-tree (puar-albo), pomono -appletree

     -en-famale person /animal also famale member or inhibitant, adherent,  hermeno - 

(surelo) sister, kaveleno -mare, Europeno

     -an male person /animal also male member or inhibitant, adherent

             hermano - (frato) brather, Europano, Amerikano, Kristano - Christian

-yeno - wife, meryeno, po exemplo: meryeno di generalo - generalyeno.

-yano - husband, meryano, po exemplo: a husband of a princess - prinsesyano. 

---------------------

-ofono  -speaker of a language (Atlangofono, Hispanofono, Germanofono)

-od -  augmentative: granoda = mega, - domodo - a big house, bonoda -excellent, pregodes = beseech

Also for verbs: flamodes - ablaze

-ozyo - disease - tuberkulozyo, nervozyo 

-itiso - 1.  denote inflammation of an organ - (larynx - larinkso) larinksitiso - laryngitis, 

-alginopain - headache- kepalgino, (mi kepalgina), mi algina (a, pro) - I have a pain... 

-trubo  -  symptom of a problem, trouble, a trubulence  -  nervotrubo, monetrubo (pekuntrubo), 

klimotrubo.

P: -ubo - (trouble more colloquial) (P: elektrUBo = trouble with electricity.Trouble with 

money- monUBo, monubes)

-yosa -rich in, abundant,   pyov-yosa -rainy. (maxanta, rika a (ko, pa) pyovo)

-ABL-  ALSO: To manage with something, succeeded with. Ables… Something with a positive result.  

Ex: I have been able to get any more information. Mi rezzeptABLis ( akablis) pli molter info. I don´t 

know if I´ll be  able to come. Mi ne kuna qi mi vyenABLos. To achieve success - fendABLes

Artablado - an artistic  achievement.  Sportablado - an achievement in sport.  Mi prosperis, 

suksidablis tom fendes - mi fendablis to.  I managed to convince him that…  Mi konvinablis hi ke… 

To-s ma grana atingo, atingado, atingablado.

-----------------------

Instruments:

-ily- tool, vehicle (mobile):  vehilyo -vehicle,  flugilyo - airplane, automobile - automobilyo

-ij-  simple tool, instrument, means:  intyenijo - container, edij(er)o -cutlery, flamijoy- 

matches  (alumetoy), P: komputijo - smartphone, fonijo (Ay-fonijo?) skritijo - a pen


-oro

1. APARATORO  apparatus (like -ilyo, -ijo )  televistoro, komputoro 

2.  OPERATORO -oro - doktoro, dansoro, operatoro, animatoro, medyatoro, aviatoro

-atoro - (a thing) (agatoro) factor, agent - denominatoro  

-ataryo - (a person) (agataryo) amataryo, animataryo, medyataryo, aviataryo  


-uy-   bokso, hod otra intyenijo. Container, receptacle, bokso, kapso, doso  (even book) 

cindruyo notuyo -notebook (kayerno) Also: 

-ayno-  a holder, sheath for the object described by the root: suord-ayno, pyed-ayno

-ubl- mublo - furniture, skritublo, bukubleto, sidelo - sidublo.

------------

-ument- document (akto) - pasumento, entrumento, naskumento (naskakto) 

-ul- portion, piece of , element, fragment:  aqulo - portion of water (some water) snovulo - a 

portion of snow, terdulo  - a portion of ground

-ikul-  a very small particle of a whole: partikulo, aqikulo -drop of water, snovikulo -

snowflake, pyovikulo -rain drop,  paunikulo – a crumb of a bread

-ex-  rexo, reminder. rexulo, (cetere- konrexe)

-uj- (suja - dirty) reminder in pejorative -  besuja, sujendita pe fango - fanguja

-abl-  capability: nemortabla - immortal, an instructive book - instruktabla buko

-ebl-  possibility:  eblezzo = ebla, portebla -portable, lektebla -legible

Se pyovebla - It may rain. (se va pyoves) kapeble - of course  

-ifo   material: kreifo, verkifo,  pintifo, pentrifo (paint) brenifo - fuel,  bildifo - building 

material 

-eska alike, pintureska - picturesque  (eskes - to be alike )

-eja (valeja) worthy of: ameja -loveable, fendEJa - worth doing, vedEJa - worth seeing

-inda - (incline - inklINDes, inklindo = disposition, tendency. tolkative=parolinda, understanding 

= kapinda

-io -  1. names of countries: Fransio -France, Italia, Italio -Italy   also 

2. system or domain: demokracy -demokratio, domain- dominio, dinastio - dinasty, prenzio -press

3. -ia  - means also possession = Fransia - of France.)

-yuno- (posono) the descendent of, or a young animal, or a plant.(enfo, posono): gatyuno - kitten, 

hundyuno - puppy. albYUNo a apling, from a tree.

-inid-  (posono) the descendent of, or a young human - royINIDano -prinsano ho prinseno. 

Karolo - Karolposonoy, Karolinidoy = dinastio fondita pr Karolo le Grana. Latininida lingvo, (lango), 

qa davyena de Latino.

-------------------------------------------------------

Halsufiksoy: (Lu deba esti prezentita il ofizzyala vortero.)

ren-  repetition, again or return.  Give it back to me. - Dar mi to ren = Rendares mi to.

Renvyenes - To come back

-ur result or product of action, expression: pikturo -drawing, pinturo - painting, nauzuro -

expression of disgust

-um-  no fixed meaning. It changes basic meaning in an undefinite way. It is used to create 

a word somewhow related or around the idea, object.

Plentumes -fulfil, kruzumes - crucify, komunia (common), komunumo, komunio (community)

 (koleksivio); vyento (wind), vyentumijo (a fan), umijo (gadget).

For euphony and to avoid sound clusters especially between y and i it is possible to use suffix -

-um-  or -al-:  -al- nasialisto (nacionalist), teorialisto, historialisto

-oy- 1. a special suffix to protect -if possible- from homonyms.  For example: -  antenna - (ant-

en-o) antenoyo, veranda - verandoyo,  birch - betuloyo, (betulo, betulalbo, betulono)

2. a special suffix to shorten long words: klosetoyo - kl-oyo, WC-o, ”loo".

(There are homonyms in Atlango too, as it is in all languages. For ex: in Esperanto: planeto - 

planet or plan-et-o  - a little plan.  But in this case in Atlango we have: Planeto - planet,  plando - a 

plan. In Atlango it is possible to avoid them also by using the suffix: -oyo) 

However sometimes the homonyms are even needed in literature and for jokes and games of words. 


-em- 1. (korilat-vorto) (tempo) enfemo - childhood, i modernemo -in modern times (modernem), 

fyestemo - holidays, proksem -soon (kortem). ALSO: When we were going - we met him - Qem mu vi 

- mu trefis hi. V-em mu trefis hi. (Vantem mu trefis hi)

-em- 2. time. em-es = to spend a time doing something, to dedicate time to an activity, a 

process ( paxendes tempo - temp-es)  lektEMes - to spend a time reading.

-eym - (korilat-vorto) aim, (intento)  Qeymo di ta forsoy, pengoy, strevoy. The purpose of these 

efforts, struggles.  Why? Qeyme? For health purposes - San(id)eyme.

Also: Pronoun + -s…onta: mi-s keptonta -I am going to catch, mi esti keptonta-I was going to catch.

-er- (korilat-vorto) Quantity, amount: albERo - forest, hominero -mankind.  Your age - Tua anyero. 

-------------------------------------------------------

va, vi, vo   Intention: I am going to. (even: to try - prum-- Mi va fendes to.  I am going to read this book - Mi va lektes ta buko.   Mi vi fendes to... me lo ne fendablis (to). (Mi intenti fendes to... Mi intenti tom fendes...) 

We are going to go to... Mu va vantes ka...

-------------------------------------------------------

Sufiksoy fendita de verboy:

Atento:  Ca afiksoy di ta tipo se unteba ko sparezo.

-------------------------------------------------------

-end- 1. causative, (from FENDES - make): - purgendes - clean, eblendes - make possible, kunendes, 

(to make clearer that a verb is transitive)     

2. in some (contextual) cases even: to supply with - ex: motivendes, ombrendes  (beombres) (like in 

Esperanto - ig- transitivenda sufikso)

3. to treat by something - toksendes -to poison, (betokses) BUT: to bomb (be bombes)

end ko ne-verba finado:

”end" kutime apera ko verba finado, me ti lo maxaba O-finado, A-finado ho E-finado. Ta formoy montra le soma aga signo kil verba formo: xarpendo = “le ago xarpendes”, xarpenda = “rilata kal ago xarpendes, xarpendanta”, sidendo = “le ago sidendes”, sidende = “rilate kal ago sidendes, sidendante”, meryendo, sposendo = “le ago meryendes”, meryenda = “rilata kal ago meryendes, sposendes”.


-ens- become, get (from FENSI - become): estens(es) jova (yuna),  jovensi -to become younger, 

formens = to form oneself, (like in Esperanto - igx- refleksiva sufikso qa serva po netransitivendes le 

verboy transitiva.

ens ko ne-verba finado:

”ens" kutime apera ko verba finado, me ti lo maxaba O-finado, A-finado ho E-finado: xarpenso = “le agero xarpens”, xarpensa = “rilata kal ago xarpens, xarpensanta”, sidenso = “le ago sidens”, sidense = “rilate kal ago sidens, sidensante”, meryenso = “le ago meryens”, meryensa = “rilata kal ago meryens”, unenso =  unio “le ago unens”.

Se ne dikaba «mi lavensi, kumbensi, rasfensi, klenensi», bo ta agoy ne eva automate, pe se sela, 

el homino ne resta pasiva dau to; se dikeba: mi lava mi, kumba mi, rasfa mi, klena mi. 

meryens: -get married, plibonens - improve oneself (to make clearer that a verb is intransitive)

——————————————————


-am- (ami -to love, to like very much) I like to walk - mi promenama, I love to eat - mi edama.

-ab- (pabi -can)- estabe (ke)- may be,- to paba estes ke... -it may be that…I can do it - Mi fendaba to. 

-ax- poxa, maxa: barbaxa (with beard)  truvaxa, solaxa, zandaxa plajo (zandyosa)

-eb- (debes -must) - Tu spekteba to -You must watch it.

-ez- 1. (da le verbo dEZes -want - me toje dal verbo tendezes ) -mi v-eza ten. (Mi vant-eza ten) - I 

want  to go there. Mi dankezu ka tu - I would like to thank to you.  

        2. -ez- also as: tendency - tendEZo, disposition: kunprineza, kapeza -understanding, dikeza, 

        plukedika -talkative

-ib- (tribes- should, need)  Ne maxes (Desmaxes) algo nezzesa. Mi triba helpo = helpiba.

      I need help. Ye to mu ne loqiba. We do not need to talk about it.


P: -arb - make decision to... (from: arbi) I decided to do it - Mi fendarbis to. They 

decided to eat it. - Lu edarbis to. She decided to study fiziko - Li studarbis fiziko. She decide to go 

there. - Li v-arba tren.

-------------------------------------------------------

Afiksoy propondata: P:

- envi   to go towards something. Go to sleep - dormenves. (P: sometimes as intention:  + enves)

ful- 1. amount. Ex: handful of money - FULmano di mon(e)o, fulbrasoy di floroy, 

fulpokso di moneo, fulmaro di amo, fulfuresto di problem(at)oy, fulkepo di ideoy.

ful- 2. amount.  (satiated, to the full)  fulfil - fulfendes, plentumi, qi tu fuligis? Mi-s fuldormita.

Prum-  (prumbes) to try, Hi prumfenda to - He is trying to do it. (Anke ne prumfendes to!)

vyol- violently, very intensively. violbatres = vambatres, violkorses = korsodes

-(e)klang- sound of, resound, howl: mahineklango, gateklango (mewing), vyenteklango -wailing of

 the wind 

vam- to start action suddenly, also ironically. (vames -to start, burst with, into. VAM!)

vama - What a ruckus, tumult! Qezza vamo! (Prime amo - posem vamo.)

Pur-  (purmes) permit, allow, purmeso, PURfendes ka mi to. Purprezentes mi. (Dar ka mi 

prezentens. - myself)


———————————————————————————


-obl- ( obli - oblige, should, ought) -Mi fendobla to - I should do it.  

-iz-  organIZo - organization, to organize something (izes).  laboristizo - workers 

organization,  cooperative- kooperaktizo

-izm - (-alizmo) denotes a system, doctrine or belief: katolik-izmo = Catholicism; real-

izmo = realism. 

-aryat- institution, organisation, (ofizzo, kontoro) secretariat - sekret-aryato, 

komisaryato

-ob - (mobes - move ) - make a movement with. Make a gesture with. 

Briefly shut the eyes - Palpebrobi, kepobes = kepyeses - to nod by head , manobes - make a movement

 by hand. Manobes po (ka) - to reach with one ́s hand.   

-ifiki (to produce, to fabricate) martel-ifik-isto = hammer maker

or: -UM-(to produce) - ex: flores , florens = flor-um-es, to bleed - sangvumes (sangves)

-umento  from: dokumento - a proof document. Identumento. Sanumento. Purmesumento. 

paxumento, kofumento, xopumento.

-ublo - furniture (mublo) skritublo, bukublo, dormublo, klenublo - garde-robo


-------------------------------------------------------

pore- (something to be done, that must be done) porefendoy, payable- porepago (a)

pare- (to parry - parees) paresolo -parasol (solombrelo), parepyovo = ombrelo (umbrella) 

porte- ( partial container) portevoco -spokesman,  porteovo (ovuyo) - egg cup  (porte-cindro)-ash-

tray,  porte-noto,  porte-moneo (porte-mono)

-------------------------------------------------------

Le verbo ESTES:

To be - estes. Mi esta -I am.

"Qi estes ho ne estes? To-s le qesto." -To be or not to be? That is the question.”

"Qi es ho ne es?  Tezzo le qesto."

Esta “is/am/are” is often contracted to -s  but only in the present tense.

Se purmesa formoy korta: (me solme i estantezzo) -s

Mi-s felica. I´m lucky. (In Atlango we use "-" to replace missing letters in contractions. )

Mu-s kontenta -We´re glad.

Lu ne-rika - Lu n-esta rika.   They´re not rich 

(Est)es = to be, ALSO: ES! = be!


------------------------------------------------------------------

It would be interesting to use -s after nouns in more advanced Atlango  

or even after adjectives:

 (In poetry?) My car is very big.  Ma auto-s molte grana. Or: Ma auto mlote grana-s.

 ------------------------------------------------------------------

 I korta sentenzoy se dikaba:

To-s kavelo - It`s a horse. To-s mi,  lo-s mi - It`s me.

Tro-s domo, qa-s (ki-s) le plu skalta. -That is a house which is the highest. 

Qi tu-s foma? or Qi-s tu foma? (edeza?) -Are you hungry? 


Retorical questions:

Qo-s? Qo lo-s? - What’s up? 

Qe-s? Qe lo-s? What is the situation? How things are?  Qe-s ko tu? = Qe lo-s ko tu? Qe tu-s?

Qi-s? Qi lo-s? Is there…?

Qi-s to tu?  = Qi to-s tu? Is it you?

Le verbo MAXES: (POXES)

Maxes - to have. Maxes is often contracted to -x in the present tense. (-x from a word: to have - maxes 

and to possess - poxes.)

Mi-x to - I have it. Mi ne-x to - I have not it.

Verb-ordo:

Il kezo qem alga neklarezzoy aperabu, se unta prel verbo le vorteto (montre- indikativa): to ho 

(impersonal):  lo ”it" (Po konstates alga fato - situdo ) 

Exemploy:

To lokta un misteria homino i tra domo - ho: Lo lokta un misteria homino i tra domo. 

It was sunny yesterday - Timpe lo esti solarr. (sole)

Talking about distance:

"How far is it to London? It's 100 kilometers." - Qe longe lo-s ka Londono? Lo-s 100 kilometroy.

Mu paba untes le helpoverbo LO  impersonal "there": Lo esta (Lo-s)

Talking that something exists in a particular place:

Exemploy:

Lo esto ( L-esto) molta trafiko i ta urbo tompe (tomorrow). 

Lo eksista toje islo qa (ki) numa le Islo Okesma. 

Lo ne-s pli di lakto pol kafo.

Lo estes!  Es! = Be! Let it be!

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 

Le verbo Vantes = Ves: - to go  

We use its shorter forms: ves, vi, va, vo, ves! (go!) 

Instead of: vantanta - vanta, vante, vinta, vonta  etp.

Even: enves - to go to, instead of: envantes

Renves - go back. Come back! - Renvyen!

Mi vEZa - I want to go

Mi vEBa - I must go

Mi VA vantes (ves) - I am going to go…

Mi vARBa - I take decision to go…

Mi vIBa - I need to go…   and so on.

den-v-es - to go out

in-v-es - to go in = entri

faren-v-es - go away

zorves, zorvantes (gvades) - wade

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 


Pe transitiva ti netransitiva verbivoy.

Tu paba untes le sufikso -end- ho -ens- hol vorto: sen ) You can use the suffix -end- or -ens- or: sen (ka 

se)

( -ed- (causative) to make a verb transitive. -ens- (become, get) to make a verb intransitive.) 

Me tu untaba to konfe le konteksto! 

But you can also use it with the context!


                           Verb transitivity is also flexible and contextual. 


Verbs may be used as transitive or intransitive, if the meaning in that sentence is unequivocal. 

(An intransitive verb does not have an object. You can use it without having to add any more 

words to the sentence. A transitive verb must have an object.

Mi mobis foren,  ho: mi mobis foren le vehilyo

Also: (to make it clearer) Mi mobensis (mi mobis mi) ho: mi mobendis foren le vehilyo

Le aqo kokti ( the water was boiling) or: (I boiled some water) = mi koktis pokter aqo. 


Formoy partisipa:

Partisipoy aktiva (aktivo)  finensa pa -inta, anta, onta

vedinta -having seen

vedanta - seeing

vedonta - about to see

amanta - loving

amanto - one who is loving

ATENTES!

1. Notes, ke kol finado - o, le partisipo kutime beskrita un persono karakterendita pel ago dil partisipo.   

Notice that with the noun ending, the participle usually describes a person characterised by the 

action of the participle.

2. Mu paba unti zal formo: vedante - le formoy pli korta:  ved-e or: ved-em !

Exemplo: Do not allow your teen to drive while eating, drinking or talking on a cell phone.

Ne purmes ka tua S-anya autes (edante) ed-e, (drinkante) drink-e ho (parolante) parol-e il fonijo.

pokte-S-anya,  es-anya -, dyes-ti-anya ... teen years old


-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

Partisipoy pasiva:

Le partisipoy pasiva (finita-s) fineba pa: -ita, ata, ota

vedita -seen

vedata -being seen, amato - a loved one

vedota - about to be seen , fendota laboro -Work that will be done

amato - one who is loved


 Exemploy:

Trovinte pomo, hi tom edis.- Finding (having found) an apple, he ate it. Mi esta trovinto dil 

pomo.

Ma amata. Le amata mina. (Ma amo) - My love.

Pagonte hi vis (vantis) – He left before paying. 

Partisipoy pasiva (Pasivo) (Passive voice) i aktiva modo finita-s pe: -ita-s, ata-s, ota-s (uta-s) 

Atlango estis lernita pe studantoy- Atlango lernita-s pe studantoy. Atlango lernita-s pe studantoy.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

Se paba untes tojel (jel) formo: + est = Atlango lernestis pe studantoy, Atlango lernesta pe studantoy.


------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Konparelativoy:

--------------------------------------------------------------------

(PLUKE - too much - plukemolte, pluke)

--------------------------------------------------------------------

PLU,  makse, (maksemume) - most

(le) plu ex:  (le)  Plu bela 


PLi - more  +

----------------------

    ------- PLO - more or less  -EGALE ( plomolta) ----------

----------------------

PLe- less    


PLA 

least, minim(e) (minimume),  (le) pla ex:  (le)  pla bela 

--------------------------------------------------------------------

PLAKE - too little 

--------------------------------------------------------------------


molte rapide -very fast,  pli rapide -faster, (le)plu rapide -the fastest

(Se paba untes: makse rapida ho rapida maksimume)

ple rapida -slower. pla rapida -slowest. (Se toje untaba: (le) minime rapida)

pli qe, pli da -more than (pli molte, qe, da)

Pli bela da hi - Pli bela sobre hi - Pli bela qe hi = More beautiful than he.

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PREN -  futher  (in Esperanto:  plu)  

Po exemplo: ne pren longem - no longer

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THE...... THE..... - QE...... TE..... the more the better - qe pli molte, te pli bone 

Also correct: Ya plu molte, DO(KE) betre.

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Week days - Dyemoy dil zemango (viko): 

Monday -       Lundo , on Monday - Lundyem, Lunde

Tuesday -       Mardo, Mardyem

Wednesday -  Sredo, Sredyem

Thursday -     Jodo, Jodyem

Friday -          Frado, Fradyem

Saturday -      Sabdo, Sabdyem

Sunday -        Soldo, Soldyem

weekend - vikenjo, P: vikfinemo. So-dyemoy (Sabd-Sol-dyemoy)

Lo-s lundo tampe - tampo -today (adyem)

Lo esti soldo timpe - timpo -yesterday (idyem)

Lo esto mardo tompe -tomorrow (odyem)

Le artiklivo LE untatas po indikes le dyemo (le jorno) dil monato. (monato = month)

Mi naskis al zema di Aprilo. Tampe lo-s le kuina di Marto

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In Atlango there are reduplicated forms which increase the intensity and also its expressiveness.

Porexemple:

molmolte, volvolte, plenplenta, finfine

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Lektante ti konparelante le segva tekstoy Tu paba simple renkunes ke Atlango esta le lango 

skaltagrade koncisa ti eufonia.

Le konpareloy:


Esperanto (1889)

Multaj el ĉiuj tiuj junaj kaj maljunaj idealistoj, kiuj aliĝis al Esperanto jam dum ĝiaj unuaj jaroj kaj 

esperis ĝian tujan enkondukon en ĉiujn lernejojn, baldaŭ estis seniluziigitaj.

ATLANGO (2018)

Molta de ca le idealistoy jova ti olda, ki kanensis ka Esperanto yu dau sa primanyoy ti esperi sa bliksa

indukto i ca skoloy, kortem estis disapondita.

Interlingua (1951)

Multos de omne le idealistas juvene e vetere, qui adhereva a Esperanto jam durante su prime annos e 

sperava su introduction immediate in omne scholas, tosto esseva disillusionate.

In Swedish

Många av alla de unga och gamla idealister, som anslöt sig till Esperanto redan under dess första år 

och hoppades på dess omedelbara införande i alla skolor, blev snart besvikna.

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Esperanto   Prenu ĉiujn tiujn kiujn vi volos kaj lasu ĉiujn tiujn kiuj ne plaĉos al vi.

Ido               Prenez ti omna, quin vu volos, e lasez ti omna, qui ne plezos a vu.

Atlango       Prin ta cay, ki tu deza ti las ta cay ki tu ne pyasa.

English       Take all those, which you want, and leave all those, which you don't like.

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Esperanto:  Ĉu ŝi ĉiam ruĝiĝas ĉe ĉio?  (tongue twister)

Atlango:     Qi li cem rujensa a co?

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Esperanto:  La malbela majlunulino mallaute malfermis la pordon al sia kelo kaj malrapide    malsupreniris la stuparon.

Atlango: Le turpa oldeno pyane abris le pordo ka sa kelo ti lente dolenvis le stupero. 

Ido: La leda oldino silence apertis la pordo a sua kelero e lente decensis l´eskalero.

English: The ugly old woman quietly opened the door to her basement and slowly descended the stairs.

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Suplementa tekstoy i ANGLA,  ATLANGO,  ESPERANTO,  IDO, OCCIDENTAL,  NOVIAL,

  LATINO SINE FLEXIONE  ti  INTERLINGUA:

ENGLISH

The idea of a world literature, which Herder and Goethe conceived essentialy from the point of view of art, has now gained even greater importance from the point of view of science. For, of the things that mankind possesses in common, nothing is so truly universal and international as science. Now al communication and propogation of science uses the means supplied by language, and so the internationality of science irresistably demands the internationality of language. If we consider that today numerous scientific works, particularly textbooks, are translated into twelve or more foreign languages, then we understand what an immense quantity of labour could be saved, if everywhere on the globe books could be as generaly understood as, for example, musical notes or tables of logarithms.

ATLANGO

Le ideo ye letraturo mondall, ki Herder ti Goethe konseptis cefe del vedopunto dil arto, gvanis tyem del vedopunto dil xenzo anke pli grana importo. Bo del kosoy, kil hominero poxa komunie, no-s te verie universall ti internasiall kil xenzo. Me ca komunikando ti propagando dil xenzo unta moyo dil lango ti do internasiezzo dil xenzo nerezisteble postila internasiezzo dil lango. Ya mu konsideros, ke tampe molter xenza verkoy, spesye lernobukoy, translangatas i duso ho pli di alya langoy, do mu kapos, qer grana qantero di laboro sparitabus, ya bukoy ceymonde kapatabu te jenerale ki exemple muziknotoy ho logaritma tabeloy.

ESPERANTO (The accented letter is followed by an x in this text.)

La ideo pri mondliteraturo, kiun Herder kaj Goethe konceptis cxefe el la vidpunkto de la arto, akiris nun el la vidpunkto de la scienco multe pli gravan signifon. Cxar el la komunaj posedajxoj de la homaro, neniu estas tiel vere gxenerala kaj internacia kiel la scienco. Sed cxiu komunikado kaj disvastigado de la scienco uzas la helpilon de la lingvo kaj tial la internacieco de la scienco nerezisteble postulas la internaciecon de la lingvo. Se ni konsideras, ke nuntempe kelkaj sciencaj verkoj, precipe lernolibroj, estas tradukitaj en dek du au pli da fremdaj lingvoj, tiam ni komprenas, kiom granda kvanto da laboro povus esti sxparata, se libroj cxie en la mondo povus esti tiel gxenerale komprenataj kiel ekzemple la muziknotoj aux logaritmaj tabeloj.  

IDO

La ideo pri mondo-literaturo, quan Herder e Goethe konceptis esence del vidpunto dil arto, ganis nun del vidpunto dil cienco mem plu granda importo. Nam del kozi, quin la homaro posedas komune, nula es tam vere universala ed internaciona kam la cienco. Or, omna komunikado e propogado dil cienco uzas la moyeno dil linguo, do la internacioneso dil cienco postulas nerezisteble la internacioneso dil linguo. Se ni konsideras, ke cadie sat multa ciencala verki, specale lernolibri, tradukesas aden dekedu o plu multa stranjera lingui, ni komprenas, qua enorma quanteso de laboro povus sparesar, se libri omnaloke sur la terglobo povus komprenesar tam generale, kam exemple muzikal noti o logaritmala tabeli.

OCCIDENTAL

Li idé pri mund-literature, quel Herder e Goethe hat conceptet esentialmen ex li vidpunctu del arte, ha nu ganat ancor mult plu grand importantie ex li vidpunctu del scientie. Nam de omni comun possedages del homanité niun es tam vermen general e international, quam scientie. me omni comunication e transmediation del scientie usa li medie del lingue. Do li internationalità del scientie ínresistibilmen postula li internationalità del lingue. Si noi considera, que hodie pluri sciential ovres, specialmen libres de aprension, trova se traductet in decidu o plu foren lingues, tande noi comprende quel immens quantità de labor on vell economisar, si on vell posser comprender libres partú sur li glob sam generalmen quam por exemples notes e tabelles de logaritmes.

NOVIAL

Li idee pri monde-literature, kel Herder e Goethe koncepted esentialim fro li vidpunctu del arte, ha nun ganat mem multim plu grand importanteso fro li vidpunctu del scientie. Den ek li coses kel li homaro posese comunim, nuli es tam verim general e international kam li scientie. Or omni comunico e mediatione del scientie usa li moyene del lingue, dunke li internationaleso del scientie demanda nonresistablim li internationaleso del lingue. Si nus considera ke disdi pluri sciential verkes, particularim lernolibres, es traductet en dekdu e plu multi stranjeri lingues, tand nus comprenda qui imensi quanteso de laboro povud bli sparat, si libres povud omnilok sur li globe bli comprendat tam generalim kam exemplim musical notes o tabeles de logaritmes.

LATINO SINE FLEXIONE (INTERLINGUA)

Idea de literatura mundiale, que Herder et Goethe habe intellecto præcipue ex puncto de visu de arte, habe hodie acquisito, ex puncto de visu de scientia, sensu etiam majore. Nam, de commune possesiones de genere humano, nihil es tam generale et internationale quam scientia. Sed omne communicatione et propogatione de scientia ute auxilio de lingua, et ita internationalitate de scientia postula in modo irresistibile internationalitate de lingua. Si nos considera, que hodie plure opere scientifico, in particulare tractatus, es translato in duodecim vel plus lingua extero, tunc nos cognosce quale immane mole de labore pote es præservato, si libros, ubicumque in terra, pote es æqualiter intellecto in generale, sicut per exemplo notas musicale aut tabulas de logarithmos.

INTERLINGUA / IALA

Le idea de literatura mundial que Herder e Goethe concipeva essentialmente ex li puncto de vista del arte, ha nunc ganate ancora multo plus grande importantia ex li puncto de vista del scientia. Nam de omne commun possessiones del humanitate necun es tam vermente general e international quam le scientia. Sed omne communication e propagation del scientia usa le medio del lingua. Tunc le internationalitate del scientia irresistibilemente postula le internationalitate del lingua. Si nos considera, que hodie plure obras scientific, specialmente libros de insenio, se trova traducite in dece-duo o plus linguas estranie tunc nos comprende qual immense quantitate de labor on economisarea, si on poterea tanto generalmente comprender libros ubicumque apud le globo como assi notas musical o tabulas de logarithmos.

 

Ne olves informes  conoy tua amikoy pe ta sayto!

Qono lerno Atlango, ta aprasos ta lango! 

Mi invita Tu po fendes linkoy ka ta sayto Atlanga.

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Kamboy:

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